Appendix D - Tests of General Development and Specific Speech/language Assessment Tests for Young Children


  1. Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ)

  2. Bayley Scales of Infant Development II (BSID-II) Second edition 1993

  3. Gesell Developmental Schedules

  4. Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales


  1. Clinical Evaluation of Language Functions (CELF) - Preschool

  2. Communication and Symbolic Behavior Scales (CSBS) (1993)

  3. Expressive One-Word Picture Vocabulary Test (EOWPVT) (revised)

  4. Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation (GFTA)

  5. Communicative Development Inventories (CDIs)

  6. Mother Infant Communication Screening (MICS) (1989)

  7. Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT) - Revised

  8. Preschool Language Scale (PLS-3)

  9. Photo Articulation Test (PAT)

  10. Receptive-Expressive Emergent Language Scale (REEL)

  11. Rossetti Infant Toddler Language Scale

  12. Screening Test of Language and Learning Development (1986)

  13. Sequenced Inventory of Communication Development (SICD)

  14. Test of Early Language Development (TELD/TELD-2)



Type of Test Set of 11 developmental questionnaires periodically sent to parents of children who show potential developmental problems between 4 and 48 months.
Purpose To identify children as needing further testing and possible referral to early intervention services.
Age Range 4 months to 48 months old.
Test Components Areas screened include gross motor, fine motor, communication, personal-social, and problem-solving. There are 3 versions.
Testing and Scoring Procedures The ASQ was designed to be used by parents having a variety of income and educational levels.
Time for Administering Test Not specified.
Standardization/Norms The test was standardized on a sample of 2,008 children (who were 53% male; the occupational and ethnic status of families were diverse). Children with disabilities and those at environmental or medical risk were included in this sample. Reliability and validity are included in the manual.
Examiner Training/Qualifications Not specified.
Non-English Versions Spanish.

(BSID-II) Second Edition 1993

Type of Test A standardized assessment of infant development.
Purpose The test is intended to measure a child's level of development in three domains, cognitive, motor and behavioral.
Age Range One month to 42 months old.
Test Components The BSID-II consists of three scales: mental, motor and behavior rating scales. The test contains items designed to identify young children at risk for developmental delay.
Testing and Scoring Procedures The examiner presents test materials to the child and observes the child's responses and behaviors. Performance results can be expressed as a developmental age or developmental quotient.
Time for Administering Test The administration time ranges from 30 minutes to 60 minutes.
Standardization/Norms BSID normative data reflects the U.S. population in terms of race/ethnicity, infant gender, education level of parents and demographic location of the infant. The Bayley was standardized on 1,700 infants, toddlers, and preschoolers between 1 and 42 months of age. Norms were established using samples that did not include disabled, premature, and other at-risk children. Corrected scores may be used for these higher risk groups, but their use is controversial.
Examiner Training/Qualifications It is recommended that the test be administered and scored by appropriately trained clinical or school psychologists.


Type of Test A standardized test of a child's general development.
Purpose Intended to assess a child's general development.
Age Range 0-72 months old. Use age equivalents over 72 months old.
Test Components Test components include: language, fine and gross motor, cognitive, and personal-social domains.
Testing and Scoring Procedures Results can be expressed as developmental age or DQ.
Time for Administering Test Not specified.
Standardization/Norms Has a normative reference group and assesses 350-400 behaviors from birth to 72 months of age.
Examiner Training/Qualifications Not specified.


Type of Test Assesses personal and social sufficiency of people from birth to adulthood.
Purpose To assess communication, daily living skills, socialization and motor skills domains.
Age Range Newborn to adult.
Test Components Three forms are available: the Interview Edition Survey, the Expanded Form, and the Classroom Edition.
Testing and Scoring Procedures A respondent (either a parent, a teacher, or another professional) who knows the individual well answers behavior-oriented questions about the individual's adaptive behavior. Results can be expressed as a standard score, percentiles, or age equivalents in each domain, as well as in the form of an Adaptive Behavior Composite.
Time for Administering Test Approximately 90 minutes.
Standardization/Norms The Interview Edition Survey and Expanded Form were standardized on 3,000 individuals from birth through 18 years old. Separate norms are available for children with mental retardation, emotional disorders, and physical handicaps. An additional 3,000 children ranging in age from 3 to 12 years served as the normative group for the Classroom Edition.
Examiner Training/Qualifications The examiner needs some level of supervised training, as the Vineland involves asking open-ended questions.



Type of Test Screening test of language abilities and diagnostic test to identify language disorders.
Purpose Assesses wide range of expressive and receptive language skills.
Age Range 3 years through 6 years old.
Test Components Manual assists in developing individualized treatment program based upon assessment results. It includes syntax, morphology and semantic areas.
Testing and Scoring Procedures Children's responses include pointing to pictures, repeating sentences and formulating labels. Raw scores are converted into subtest standard scores, composite scores, confidence intervals, percentile ranks and age equivalents.
Time for Administering Test Approximately 30-45 minutes depending on the age of the child. The CELF-P Quick Test requires approximately 15-20 minutes.
Standardization/Norms The standardization sample included more than 1,500 children stratified on the basis of age, gender, race/ethnicity, parent education level, and geographic region based on 1988 Census of Population update. Reliability and validity measures are provided in the test manual.
Examiner Training/Qualifications It's recommended that examiners have experience administering, scoring, and interpreting standardized tests before attempting to administer the CELF-P.


Type of Test The test includes observation, interaction and parent interview using a standardized format for sampling behavior.
Purpose 1) Early identification of children who have or are at-risk for developing a communication impairment.

2) To establish a baseline profile of a child's communicative, symbolic and social-affective functioning which could provide direction for monitoring of behavioral changes, and planning future assessments and interventions.
Age Range 8 months to 2 years old, pre-verbal to verbal children.
Test Components Observation, interaction, and parent interview. Includes a Caregiver Perception Rating form to complete to gain their perceptions of the child's behavior and performance during assessment.
Testing and Scoring Procedures The questionnaire is mailed ahead to the caregiver or completed as an interview. When directly interacting with the child, the examiner can vary the degree of structure to encourage spontaneous communication and play behavior.
Recording and Scoring Results Assessment videotaped for analysis and scoring.
Time for Administering Test Approximately 60 minutes.
Standardization/Norms Standardization information reported in the manual. The CBSC has also been tested for cultural bias with African American children.
Examiner Training/Qualifications It is recommended that this test be given by a speech language pathologists or other professionals trained to perform developmental assessments of young children.


Type of Test Standardized test of expressive language.
Purpose The test was developed to help professionals obtain quick and valid estimates of a child's expressive language reported in standard scores. It can be used to screen for possible speech defects, or learning disorders, to estimate a bilingual student's fluency in English or to screen for school readiness or placement.
Age Range Designed for children 2-12 years old.
Test Components The test contains 100 items intended to measure a child's verbal expression, including the child's ability to make word-picture associations. Test items are based on what the child has learned from home and from formal education.
Testing and Scoring Procedures The child is asked to name presented black and white pictures. The test can be administered in English or in Spanish.
Time for Administering Test It is quick to administer, 7-15 minutes.
Standardization/Norms Administered to 1,118 children in San Francisco Bay Area. Reliability .84 to .92 with median reliability of 0.90.
Examiner Training/Qualifications There are no special requirements to administer, except fluency in Spanish is needed to administer in Spanish.


Type of Test Articulation test.
Purpose This test is designed to provide a systematic means for assessing articulation of consonant sounds.
Age Range Ages 2-16 years or older.
Test Components The GFTA subtests include sounds-in-Words, sounds-in-Sentences, and Stimulability subtest (the child repeats the sound after the clinician models correct production).
Testing and Scoring Procedures The test consists of full color test pictures to elicit spontaneous responses from the child. Each sound production can be judged for presence of error and type of error produced. Children's error responses can be categorized using the Khan-Lewis Phonological Analysis (KLPA).
Time for Administering Test 15-30 minutes.
Standardization/Norms Not applicable. Reliability and validity information is available in the test manual.
Examiner Training/Qualifications Examiners must have basic training in phonetics and in the nature of articulation disorders to analyze the types of errors produced.


Type of Test The test is a parent report instrument that assesses the child's level of language development.
Purpose It is used to obtain information on the course of language development from children's first nonverbal gestures through expansion of early vocabulary to the beginnings of grammar.
Age Range The test is available in 2 separate forms:
1) for infants from 8 to 16 months old
2) for toddlers from 16 to 30 months old
Test Components The infant form (CDI/Words and Gestures) is used to record information on the infant's comprehension vocabulary, productive vocabulary, and use of communicative and symbolic gestures. The toddler form, (CDI/ Words and Sentences) is designed to assess vocabulary knowledge and grammatical skills.
Testing and Scoring Procedures These are included in the user's guide and technical manual.
Time for Administering Test The time for parents to complete the form is 20-40 minutes, depending on the extent of the child's communicative skills.
Standardization/Norms The CDIs are norm referenced instruments. Norms were established from samples of children in 3 cities: New Haven, Seattle, and San Diego. The educational and occupational levels of the parents were well above the national average but the sample obtained showed considerable diversity. It was noted that the norms may not be applicable to children from low education/low income families.
Examiner Training/Qualifications This is a parent report instrument. The CDI forms are designed to be self-explanatory. In the normative study, no additional instructions were provided to the parents other than what appears on the forms. There are no special qualifications required for scoring the forms.


Type of Test This test is a screening tool to assess communication ability. The test is not designed to provide an in-depth assessment of communication skills.
Purpose It evaluates and documents critical interactive mother-infant behavior to identify a high-risk situations. It qualifies participants for additional assessment, preventive programs, and/or early intervention.
Age Range The screening is for mother-infant dyads with infants under 12 months old.
Test Components Test data is based on a parent interview and professional observations of mother-infant interactions. It uses an analysis format and is designed to allow for cultural and personal variations in the ways mothers and infants use attention strategies. It compares the gazing, language, positioning and movement, facial expressions, touching, gestural, and attention awareness of the dyad.
Testing and Scoring Procedures The test can be administered in the home or clinic.
Time for Administering Test Approximately 30-40 minutes; including a 10-minute interview.
Standardization/Norms The test has not been standardized. Rather, the observational items are based on the literature on parent-infant interactions. MICS was piloted in two WIC clinics in Illinois. Approximately 50 mother-infant dyads were observed to qualify the mother-infant interactions.
Examiner Training/Qualifications The MICS is designed to be used by any professional who has been trained to conduct interviews for the purpose of acquiring unbiased and objective information.


Type of Test The test assesses receptive language skills; it is a screening test to identify language comprehension difficulties.
Purpose The test should be seen as suggesting the level of present language functioning of the individual. It can be used as part of a test battery.
Age Range 2.5 to 40 years old.
Test Components PPVT-R includes a series of 175 pictures.
Testing and Scoring Procedures The child is asked to point to a picture which is named by the examiner. The pictures are black and white and are presented in a field of 4 at a time. The use of a pointing response makes it useful for children with expressive language deficits.
Time for Administering Test The test is easy to administer and quick, 5-15 minutes.
Standardization/Norms The PPVT-R is normed on 5,028 children and adults. The PPVT-R has not been normed on a population with special needs. The test is normed for ages 2 years to adult. Stratification criteria used in the standardization sample included: chronological age and sex, geographic representation (US), occupation representation, ethnic representation, and community size representation. Validity and reliability information are included in manual.
Examiner Training/Qualifications No special qualifications are required, but practice in giving and scoring the test is recommended.


Type of Test The test assesses receptive and expressive language skills in infants and young children.
Purpose The PLS-3 is meant to comprise only one part of a total diagnostic evaluation. Information from the PLS-3 helps to determine whether or not a child has a language disorder and the severity of the disorder. Task analyses can evaluate the child's strengths, emerging skills, and deficits. Areas can be identified for in-depth testing prior to defining therapy goals.
Age Range 0 to 6 years old.
Test Components Auditory comprehension and expressive communication. The auditory comprehension subscale evaluates the child's receptive language skills in the areas of attention, semantics, structure, and integrative thinking skills. There are 3 optional measures: Articulation Screener, Language Sample Checklist, & Family Information / Suggestion.
Testing and Scoring Procedures The examiner's manual provides instructions for scoring children's responses. Response types include single-answer responses, open-ended responses, and scoring of spontaneous instances of tested behaviors. Raw scores are converted into standard scores, confidence bands, percentile ranks, and age equivalents.
Time for Administering Test Approximately 30 minutes.
Standardization/Norms The standardization sample included 1,200 children, ages 2 weeks to 6 years, 11 months. Within each age level, 50% of the sample was male and 50% was female. A representative sampling (based on the 1986 Census of Population update) was stratified on the basis of parent education level, geographic region, and race.
Examiner Training/Qualifications No special qualifications are required to administer the test. To obtain valid scores, the examiner must have knowledge of test administration and score interpretation.


Type of Test The test assesses a child's articulation.
Purpose It is designed for use by speech and language pathologists for children who have articulation problems.
Age Range 3 to 12 years old.
Test Components The test contains a set of 72 color photographs used to stimulate interest and evoke spontaneous speech response.
Testing and Scoring Procedures The child is asked to name presented color pictures and the evaluator records speech production to assess any possible errors of articulation.
Time for Administering Test Quick to administer (5-15 minutes).
Standardization/Norms This test is normed for ages 3 to 12 years old to test articulation within the context of single words. The original photographs for the PAT were tested on 500 children of all ages and socioeconomic backgrounds in the Seattle Public Schools. Items that were not readily recognized by young children were replaced. The revised PAT was used to screen and diagnose over 3,000 elementary school children in the Seattle Public Schools. Validity against 2 standard articulation tests was .815 to .974. Reliability is .991.
Examiner Training/Qualifications No special training is required, but the evaluator should have some knowledge of phonetics to record responses.


Type of Test The REEL is a checklist that uses observational information reported by parents or guardians to assess speech and language ability.
Purpose To identify potential receptive and expressive language problems in children up to 3 years old and to determine the effect of physical and/or environmental risks that cause primary delays in early speech and language development. Primary uses of the checklist are to describe the present developmental status of young children, to assist in setting intervention goals, and to screen for medically and environmentally at-risk children.
Age Range 0 to 3 years old.
Test Components The Bzoch-League Receptive Expressive Emergent Language Scale (REEL) has a relatively large number of items for the early ages (132 test items). The test relies heavily on parent report. Subtests include Receptive Language Age, Receptive Quotient, Expressive Language Age, Expressive Quotient, Combined Language Age and Language Quotient.
Testing and Scoring Procedures The checklist describes language and interactive behaviors that are optimal for infants and toddlers. It may also be used for older preschool children in whom obvious delays are expected.
Standardization/Norms The basis for age placement of the items is unclear and there is an absence of reports of a published norming study. Comparison of age placement for similar items on the BSID and SICD indicates that the REEL expects behaviors at consistently earlier ages than the two other instruments.
Examiner Training/Qualifications It is intended for use by physicians, speech and language pathologists and early childhood professionals.


Type of Test This is a criterion referenced test to assess the language skills of young children.
Purpose The scale assesses preverbal and verbal areas of communication and interaction including: interaction-attachment, pragmatics, gesture, play, language comprehension and language expression. The results from this assessment tool reflect the child's mastery of skills in each of the areas assessed at three-month intervals.
Age Range 0 to 3 years old.
Test Components The test includes a parent questionnaire and test protocol to gather observed, elicited, and parent report information. Items are only included when they are considered chronologically appropriate and developmentally discriminating.
Testing and Scoring Procedures The test can be administered by any member of an infant-toddler assessment team. The scale may be administered in the home, diagnostic center, school, clinic or hospital setting with the child's primary caregiver present.
Time for Administering Test Administration time may vary (10-30 minutes).
Standardization/Norms The items developed for the scale are a compilation of author observation, descriptions from developmental hierarchies, and behaviors recognized and used in the field of infant toddler assessment. Only items which were considered discriminating and representative of a skill at an age were included in the scale. Standardization, validity, and reliability were not provided.
Examiner Training/Qualifications The examiner should have a thorough knowledge of child development and language.


Type of Test This is a screening test to assess a child's development in terms of language, social/personal skills and motor skills.
Purpose The checklist was designed to provide a vital link between norm-referenced assessment and intervention.
Age Range 0 to 3 years old.
Test Components The test is designed to record observations of 85 child behaviors selected from the checklist in 5 categories of development: language comprehension, language expression, avenues to learning, social/personal development and motor development. The categories represent areas of behavior basic to children's activities of daily living, future academic success and feelings of self worth.
Testing and Scoring Procedures Examiners elicit information from parents about specific behaviors to determine if a behavior is present, emerging, or not within the child's repertoire of behaviors.
Time for Administering Test Not specified.
Standardization/Norms Norms were based on a sample of 357 children ages 4 to 36 months. Each age had 60 children (20 children from each of 3 states). The sample was divided by gender and type of community; attempts were also made to include varying ethnic backgrounds and socioeconomic statuses. Non-verbal children were excluded. 80% of children passed the test at each level. Validity was not reported. Reliability = .88 to .99.
Examiner Training/Qualifications Any person who can reliably observe child behaviors, follow the designated procedures and assess a sampling of at least six children who are in the birth-to-three chronological or developmental range.


Type of Test This test has two major sections: a receptive scale and an expressive scale.
Purpose This test is designed to evaluate the communicative abilities of normal and retarded children who are functioning between four months and four years of age. It is useful in remedial programming of young child with sensory impairments, language disorders, and varying degrees of mental retardation.
Age Range 0 to 4 years old.
Test Components Test items assess semantic-cognitive, syntactic, and pragmatic aspects of communication. The receptive scale assesses awareness, discrimination and understanding of language. The expressive scale assesses initiating, imitating and responding behaviors as well as verbal output and articulation.
Testing and Scoring Procedures The test may be given by one person, but is easier if there are both a test administrator and a recorder. Testing begins at the level where consistent success is anticipated; so a child is never given the complete test. Testing continues until 3 consecutive items are failed. Observable responses in testing situations are supplemented by parent reports.
Time for Administering Test 30 to 75 minutes for children 24 months and older.
Standardization/Norms Test items are normed for ages 4 months to 48 months. Articulation testing is for 2 years and above. The original study included 252 children, 21 at each of 12 age levels. There are three discrete age levels per year from 4 months to 48 months of age. An equal number of children in each age group were drawn from each of the 3 social classes. Only Caucasian children were included; there were 124 males and 128 females. Exclusions were made for several reasons. The test was later evaluated with a field test of 609 children from Detroit, with 276 black children and 333 white children.
Examiner Training/Qualifications No special qualifications are required, but it is recommended that examiners be familiar with child language development.


Type of Test The TELD assesses receptive and expressive language skills in infants and young children.
Purpose This test is designed to identify children in need of more prolonged clinical appraisal. It was designed to complement rather than replace systematic, naturalistic evaluation.
Age Range The age range for the TELD is from 3 years to 7 years, 11 months. For the TELD-2 the age range is expanded to include children from 2 years to 8 years.
Test Components The language dimensions of content (semantics) and form (phonology, morphology, and syntax) are assessed in both receptive and expressive language domains.
Testing and Scoring Procedures Child responses include picture pointing, short answers, gestures, and word imitation. Children's raw scores are converted to language quotients (scaled scores), percentiles, and language ages.
Time for Administering Test On average, 15-20 minutes.
Standardization/Norms The TELD was standardized on 1184 children from 11 states and one Canadian province. Characteristics of children in the standardization sample are provided in a table in the test manual.
Examiner Training/Qualifications The test can be administered by anyone who is reasonably competent in administration of tests in education, language, and psychology.
Appendix E