Maternal/Pediatric HIV Program Evaluation (Summary of Key Data)
Prenatal Counseling and Testing Rate
The percentage of women receiving prenatal counseling and testing is steadily increasing. In 2005, 228,948 (95%) of the 240,541 women giving birth knew their HIV status before delivery. The remaining 11,593 required HIV testing at the delivery site. Further increases in the rate of prenatal HIV counseling and testing may be linited due to the high number of women in New York State who receive late or no prenatal care.
In 2003, the New York State Department of Health issued emergency regulations changing the maximum turnaround time for getting expedited test results back to the mother and her physician from 48 to 12 hours. The reduced turnaround time should ensure that HIV-positive mothers, who have not been tested in prenatal care, know their status in time to receive antiretroviral therapy to reduce perinatal transmission in the intrapartum or early newborn periods.
HIV-Infected Women Giving Birth
Five hundred and ninety-one (591) HIV-infected women gave birth in 2005 in New York State. This respresents a 69 precent decrease from 1990 (1,898 HIV-infected women gave birth in 1990).
Perinatal HIV Transmission
Rates of perinatal HIV transmission have decreased as a result of testing and treatment to prevent transmission. In 2004, the transmission rate was 2.8 precent with 16 infants infected through perinatal transmission. In 2005, the perinatal transmission rate was 2.4%.
The results of a recent Department of Health review suggest that the most improtant factors associated with residual HIV transmission in New York State are lack of prenatal care, infection during pregnancy after a negative HIV test result early in pregnancy, and lack of adherence to antiretroviral medications. Many women who transmit HIV to their infants are also under serious psychosocial stress due to substance abuse, serious psychiatric illness, and homelessness.
The Department will maintain all current policies and develop new policy and programmatic responses to address the factors associated with residual transmission. Given the intractable nature of the issues, it is clear that continued vigilance and increased resources are needed to further reduce the incidence of perinatal HIV transmission in New York State.
|HIV Transmission Rates in New York State|