Congenital Malformations Registry - Summary Report

Section I
Demographic Characteristics of Children Reported with Major Malformations

Introduction to Tables

These tables are based on children resident in New York State who were live born in 1998 to 2001 and reported to the registry with major malformations. Since a new coding system began to be used in 1992, the list of major malformations has been revised (see Appendix 4). Thus, the prevalence in this report are not comparable to reports prior to 1992.

The overall occurrences of major malformations for the four years ranged from 4.1% to 4.2% of live births. Male children have a higher rate of major malformations than female children (4.8% to 5.0% versus 3.1% to 3.4%, Tables 1a, 1b, 1c, 1d). This difference is consistent within different racial groups. The rates for major malformations are somewhat higher for black than for white children (4.8% to 4.9% versus 3.9% to 4.2%). The major malformation rate among children with residence at birth in New York State excluding New York City was slightly higher than children with residence at birth in New York City (4.1% to 4.3% versus 3.8% to 4.1%). The smaller number of births in the "other" racial category makes these rates difficult to interpret.

About 80% of children reported with major malformations have only one major malformation (Tables 2a, 2b, 2c, 2d). Since most children had one major malformation, the race-sex patterns seen for all major malformations are similar to the patterns seen in children with a single major malformation (Tables 3a, 3b, 3c, 3d). All race-sex groups for children with multiple major malformations showed little variation (Tables 4a, 4b, 4c, 4d)

Section 1 - Table 1a
1998 Births - New York State Residents
Percent of Live Births with One or More Major Malformations
Sex by Race and Residence
  Both Sexes Males Females
Race and Residence Infants Total Births % Infants Total Births % Infants Total Births %
All Races 10,902 257,737 4.2 6,638 132,260 5.0 4,264 125,477 3.4
White 7,670 184,517 4.2 4,771 94,904 5.0 2,899 89,613 3.2
Black 2,645 54,108 4.9 1,503 27,523 5.5 1,142 26,585 4.3
Other 551 17,930 3.1 342 9,208 3.7 209 8,722 2.4
Unknown/Missing 36 1,182 3.0 22 625 3.5 14 557 2.5
All Races 6,881 160,645 4.3 4,263 82,403 5.2 2,618 78,242 3.3
White 5,391 129,487 4.2 3,396 66,535 5.1 1,995 62,952 3.2
Black 1,284 25,012 5.1 744 12,766 5.8 540 12,246 4.4
Other 183 5,357 3.4 106 2,683 4.0 77 2,674 2.9
Unknown/Missing 23 789 2.9 17 419 4.1 6 370 1.6
All Races 4,021 97,092 4.1 2,375 49,857 4.8 1,646 47,235 3.5
White 2,279 55,030 4.1 1,375 28,369 4.8 904 26,661 3.4
Black 1,361 29,096 4.7 759 14,757 5.1 602 14,339 4.2
Other 368 12,573 2.9 236 6,525 3.6 132 6,048 2.2
Unknown/Missing 13 393 3.3 5 206 2.4 8 187 4.3

Section 1 - Table 1b
1999 Births - New York State Residents
Percent of Live Births with One or More Major Malformations
Sex by Race and Residence
  Both Sexes Males Females
Race and Residence Infants Total Births % Infants Total Births % Infants Total Births %
All Races 10,342 255,147 4.1 6,340 130,758 4.8 4,002 124,389 3.2
White 7,147 182,448 3.9 4,500 93,870 4.8 2,647 88,578 3.0
Black 2,529 53,044 4.8 1,434 26,760 5.4 1,095 26,284 4.2
Other 625 18,604 3.4 386 9,583 4.0 239 9,021 2.6
Unknown/Missing 41 1,051 3.9 20 545 3.7 21 506 4.2
All Races 6,446 158,388 4.1 4,036 81,212 5.0 2,410 77,176 3.1
White 5,075 127,889 4.0 3,230 65,771 4.9 1,845 62,118 3.0
Black 1,161 24,290 4.8 682 12,222 5.6 479 12,068 4.0
Other 182 5,500 3.3 108 2,846 3.8 74 2,654 2.8
Unknown/Missing 28 709 3.9 16 373 4.3 12 336 3.6
All Races 3,896 96,759 4.0 2,304 49,546 4.7 1,592 47,213 3.4
White 2,072 54,559 3.8 1,270 28,099 4.5 802 26,460 3.0
Black 1,368 28,754 4.8 752 14,538 5.2 616 14,216 4.3
Other 443 13,104 3.4 278 6,737 4.1 165 6,367 2.6
Unknown/Missing 13 342 3.8 4 172 2.3 9 170 5.3

Section 1 - Table 1c
2000 Births - New York State Residents
Percent of Live Births with One or More Major Malformations
Sex by Race and Residence
  Both Sexes Males Females
Race and Residence Infants Total Births % Infants Total Births % Infants Total Births %
All Races 10,719 258,452 4.1 6,660 132,587 5.0 4,059 125,865 3.2
White 7,333 182,284 4.0 4,605 93,455 4.9 2,728 88,829 3.1
Black 2,660 54,497 4.9 1,584 27,862 5.7 1,076 26,635 4.0
Other 692 20,538 3.4 450 10,704 4.2 242 9,834 2.5
Unknown/Missing 34 1,133 3.0 21 566 3.7 13 567 2.3
All Races 6,788 160,221 4.2 4,293 82,099 5.2 2,495 78,122 3.2
White 5,281 127,771 4.1 3,350 65,442 5.1 1,931 62,329 3.1
Black 1,247 25,508 4.9 763 13,067 5.8 484 12,441 3.9
Other 234 6,073 3.9 163 3,152 5.2 71 2,921 2.4
Unknown/Missing 26 869 3.0 17 438 3.9 9 431 2.1
All Races 3,931 98,231 4.0 2,367 50,488 4.7 1,564 47,743 3.3
White 2,052 54,513 3.8 1,255 28,013 4.5 797 26,500 3.0
Black 1,413 28,989 4.9 821 14,795 5.5 592 14,194 4.2
Other 458 14,465 3.2 287 7,552 3.8 171 6,913 2.5
Unknown/Missing 8 264 3.0 4 128 3.1 4 136 2.9

Section 1 - Table 1d
2001 Births - New York State Residents
Percent of Live Births with One or More Major Malformations
Sex by Race and Residence
  Both Sexes Males Females
Race and Residence Infants Total Births % Infants Total Births % Infants Total Births %
All Races 10,294 253,378 4.1 6,484 129,723 5.0 3,810 123,655 3.1
White 7,129 180,517 3.9 4,529 92,335 4.9 2,600 88,182 2.9
Black 2,485 51,812 4.8 1,539 26,442 5.8 946 25,370 3.7
Other 639 19,998 3.2 389 10,423 3.7 250 9,575 2.6
Unknown/Missing 41 1,051 3.9 27 523 5.2 14 528 2.7
All Races 6,587 156,947 4.2 4,180 80,031 5.2 2,407 76,916 3.1
White 5,137 125,230 4.1 3,279 63,803 5.1 1,858 61,427 3.0
Black 1,176 24,806 4.7 736 12,669 5.8 440 12,137 3.6
Other 242 6,023 4.0 146 3,134 4.7 96 2,889 3.3
Unknown/Missing 32 888 3.6 19 425 4.5 13 463 2.8
All Races 3,707 96,431 3.8 2,304 49,692 4.6 1,403 46,739 3.0
White 1,992 55,287 3.6 1,250 28,532 4.4 742 26,755 2.8
Black 1,309 27,006 4.8 803 13,773 5.8 506 13,233 3.8
Other 397 13,975 2.8 243 7,289 3.3 154 6,686 2.3
Unknown/Missing 9 163 5.5 8 98 8.2 1 65 1.5

Section 1 - Table 2a
1998 Births - New York State Residents
Number of Major Malformations Per Child
Number of Malformations Number of Children Percent
1 8,533 78.3
2 1,495 13.7
3 482 4.4
4 178 1.6
5 97 0.9
6 46 0.4
7 29 0.3
8 19 0.2
9 11 0.1
10 5 *
11 2 *
12 2 *
>12 3 *
All Children 10,902 100.0

Section 1 - Table 2b
1999 Births - New York State Residents
Number of Major Malformations Per Child
Number of Malformations Number of Children Percent
1 8,208 79.4
2 1,394 13.5
3 447 4.3
4 154 1.5
5 63 0.6
6 37 0.4
7 16 0.2
8 10 0.1
9 8 0.1
10 1 *
11 3 *
>12 1 *
All Children 10,342 100.0

Section 1 - Table 2c
2000 Births - New York State Residents
Number of Major Malformations Per Child
Number of Malformations Number of Children Percent
1 8,786 82.0
2 1,318 12.3
3 377 3.5
4 138 1.3
5 54 0.5
6 27 0.3
7 6 0.1
8 5 *
9 1 *
10 3 *
11 1 *
12 2 *
>12 1 *
All Children 10,719 100.0

Section 1 - Table 2d
2001 Births - New York State Residents
Number of Major Malformations Per Child
Number of Malformations Number of Children Percent
1 8,383 81.4
2 1,306 12.7
3 367 3.6
4 139 1.4
5 58 0.6
6 25 0.2
7 8 0.1
8 7 0.1
10 1 *
All Children 10,294 100.0

* - Less than 0.05%

Note: Total percent may not add to 100% due to rounding

Section 1 - Table 3a
1998 Births - New York State Residents
Percent of Live Births with One Major Malformation
Sex by Race and Residence
  Both Sexes Males Females
Race and Residence Infants Total Births % Infants Total Births % Infants Total Births %
All Races 8,533 257,737 3.3 5,275 132,260 4.0 3,258 125,477 2.6
White 5,978 184,517 3.2 3,788 94,904 4.0 2,190 89,613 2.4
Black 2,101 54,108 3.9 1,212 27,523 4.4 889 26,585 3.3
Other 428 17,930 2.4 260 9,208 2.8 168 8,722 1.9
Unknown/Missing 26 1,182 2.2 15 625 2.4 11 557 2.0
All Races 5,374 160,645 3.3 3,378 82,403 4.1 1,996 78,242 2.6
White 4,185 129,487 3.2 2,686 66,535 4.0 1,499 62,952 2.4
Black 1,037 25,012 4.1 607 12,766 4.8 430 12,246 3.5
Other 135 5,357 2.5 73 2,683 2.7 62 2,674 2.3
Unknown/Missing 17 789 2.2 12 419 2.9 5 370 1.4
All Races 3,159 97,092 3.3 1,897 49,857 3.8 1,262 47,235 2.7
White 1,793 55,030 3.3 1,102 28,369 3.9 691 26,661 2.6
Black 1,064 29,096 3.7 605 14,757 4.1 459 14,339 3.2
Other 293 12,573 2.3 187 6,525 2.9 106 6,048 1.8
Unknown/Missing 9 393 2.3 3 206 1.5 6 187 3.2

Section 1 - Table 3b
1999 Births - New York State Residents
Percent of Live Births with One Major Malformation
Sex by Race and Residence
  Both Sexes Males Females
Race and Residence Infants Total Births % Infants Total Births % Infants Total Births %
All Races 8,208 255,147 3.2 5,100 130,758 3.9 3,108 124,389 2.5
White 5,675 182,448 3.1 3,636 93,870 3.9 2,039 88,578 2.3
Black 1,999 53,044 3.8 1,130 26,760 4.2 869 26,284 3.3
Other 501 18,604 2.7 318 9,583 3.3 183 9,021 2.0
Unknown/Missing 33 1,051 3.1 16 545 2.9 17 506 3.4
All Races 5,080 158,388 3.2 3,222 81,212 4.0 1,858 77,176 2.4
White 4,002 127,889 3.1 2,587 65,771 3.9 1,415 62,118 2.3
Black 917 24,290 3.8 536 12,222 4.4 381 12,068 3.2
Other 138 5,500 2.5 86 2,846 3.0 52 2,654 2.0
Unknown/Missing 23 709 3.2 13 373 3.5 10 336 3.0
All Races 3,128 96,759 3.2 1,878 49,546 3.8 1,250 47,213 2.6
White 1,673 54,559 3.1 1,049 28,099 3.7 624 26,460 2.4
Black 1,082 28,754 3.8 594 14,538 4.1 488 14,216 3.4
Other 363 13,104 2.8 232 6,737 3.4 131 6,367 2.1
Unknown/Missing 10 342 2.9 3 172 1.7 7 170 4.1

Section 1 - Table 3c
2000 Births - New York State Residents
Percent of Live Births with One Major Malformation
Sex by Race and Residence
  Both Sexes Males Females
Race and Residence Infants Total Births % Infants Total Births % Infants Total Births %
All Races 8,786 258,452 3.4 5,545 132,587 4.2 3,241 125,865 2.6
White 5,997 182,284 3.3 3,823 93,455 4.1 2,174 88,829 2.4
Black 2,194 54,497 4.0 1,334 27,862 4.8 860 26,635 3.2
Other 568 20,538 2.8 370 10,704 3.5 198 9,834 2.0
Unknown/Missing 27 1,133 2.4 18 566 3.2 9 567 1.6
NYS Excluding NYC                  
All Races 5,505 160,221 3.4 3,531 82,099 4.3 1,974 78,122 2.5
White 4,297 127,771 3.4 2,763 65,442 4.2 1,534 62,329 2.5
Black 1,000 25,508 3.9 620 13,067 4.7 380 12,441 3.1
Other 187 6,073 3.1 134 3,152 4.3 53 2,921 1.8
Unknown/Missing 21 869 2.4 14 438 3.2 7 431 1.6
All Races 3,281 98,231 3.3 2,014 50,488 4.0 1,267 47,743 2.7
White 1,700 54,513 3.1 1,060 28,013 3.8 640 26,500 2.4
Black 1,194 28,989 4.1 714 14,795 4.8 480 14,194 3.4
Other 381 14,465 2.6 236 7,552 3.1 145 6,913 2.1
Unknown/Missing 6 264 2.3 4 128 3.1 2 136 1.5

Section 1 - Table 3d
2001 Births - New York State Residents
Percent of Live Births with One Major Malformation
Sex by Race and Residence
  Both Sexes Males Females
Race and Residence Infants Total Births % Infants Total Births % Infants Total Births %
All Races 8,383 253,378 3.3 5,320 129,723 4.1 3,063 123,655 2.5
White 5,785 180,517 3.2 3,708 92,335 4.0 2,077 88,182 2.4
Black 2,057 51,812 4.0 1,275 26,442 4.8 782 25,370 3.1
Other 502 19,998 2.5 312 10,423 3.0 190 9,575 2.0
Unknown/Missing 39 1,051 3.7 25 523 4.8 14 528 2.7
All Races 5,326 156,947 3.4 3,414 80,031 4.3 1,912 76,916 2.5
White 4,152 125,230 3.3 2,679 63,803 4.2 1,473 61,427 2.4
Black 961 24,806 3.9 604 12,669 4.8 357 12,137 2.9
Other 182 6,023 3.0 113 3,134 3.6 69 2,889 2.4
Unknown/Missing 31 888 3.5 18 425 4.2 13 463 2.8
All Races 3,057 96,431 3.2 1,906 49,692 3.8 1,151 46,739 2.5
White 1,633 55,287 3.0 1,029 28,532 3.6 604 26,755 2.3
Black 1,096 27,006 4.1 671 13,773 4.9 425 13,233 3.2
Other 320 13,975 2.3 199 7,289 2.7 121 6,686 1.8
Unknown/Missing 8 163 4.9 7 98 7.1 1 65 1.5

Section 1 - Table 4a
1998 Births - New York State Residents
Percent of Live Births with Two or More Major Malformations
Sex by Race and Residence
  Both Sexes Males Females
Race and Residence Infants Total Births % Infants Total Births % Infants Total Births %
All Races 2,369 257,737 0.9 1,363 132,260 1.0 1,006 125,477 0.8
White 1,692 184,517 0.9 983 94,904 1.0 709 89,613 0.8
Black 544 54,108 1.0 291 27,523 1.1 253 26,585 1.0
Other 123 17,930 0.7 82 9,208 0.9 41 8,722 0.5
Unknown/Missing 10 1,182 0.8 7 625 1.1 3 557 0.5
All Races 1,507 160,645 0.9 885 82,403 1.1 622 78,242 0.8
White 1,206 129,487 0.9 710 66,535 1.1 496 62,952 0.8
Black 247 25,012 1.0 137 12,766 1.1 110 12,246 0.9
Other 48 5,357 0.9 33 2,683 1.2 15 2,674 0.6
Unknown/Missing 6 789 0.8 5 419 1.2 1 370 0.3
All Races 862 97,092 0.9 478 49,857 1.0 384 47,235 0.8
White 486 55,030 0.9 273 28,369 1.0 213 26,661 0.8
Black 297 29,096 1.0 154 14,757 1.0 143 14,339 1.0
Other 75 12,573 0.6 49 6,525 0.8 26 6,048 0.4
Unknown/Missing 4 393 1.0 2 206 1.0 2 187 1.1

Section 1 - Table 4b
1999 Births - New York State Residents
Percent of Live Births with Two or More Major Malformations
Sex by Race and Residence
  Both Sexes Males Females
Race and Residence Infants Total Births % Infants Total Births % Infants Total Births %
All Races 2,134 255,147 0.8 1,240 130,758 0.9 894 124,389 0.7
White 1,472 182,448 0.8 864 93,870 0.9 608 88,578 0.7
Black 530 53,044 1.0 304 26,760 1.1 226 26,284 0.9
Other 124 18,604 0.7 68 9,583 0.7 56 9,021 0.6
Unknown/Missing 8 1,051 0.8 4 545 0.7 4 506 0.8
All Races 1,366 158,388 0.9 814 81,212 1.0 552 77,176 0.7
White 1,073 127,889 0.8 643 65,771 1.0 430 62,118 0.7
Black 244 24,290 1.0 146 12,222 1.2 98 12,068 0.8
Other 44 5,500 0.8 22 2,846 0.8 22 2,654 0.8
Unknown/Missing 5 709 0.7 3 373 0.8 2 336 0.6
All Races 768 96,759 0.8 426 49,546 0.9 342 47,213 0.7
White 399 54,559 0.7 221 28,099 0.8 178 26,460 0.7
Black 286 28,754 1.0 158 14,538 1.1 128 14,216 0.9
Other 80 13,104 0.6 46 6,737 0.7 34 6,367 0.5
Unknown/Missing 3 342 0.9 1 172 0.6 2 170 1.2

Section 1 - Table 4c
2000 Births - New York State Residents
Percent of Live Births with Two or More Major Malformations
Sex by Race and Residence
  Both Sexes Males Females
Race and Residence Infants Total Births % Infants Total Births % Infants Total Births %
All Races 1,934 258,452 0.7 1,115 132,587 0.8 819 125,865 0.7
White 1,337 182,284 0.7 782 93,455 0.8 555 88,829 0.6
Black 466 54,497 0.9 250 27,862 0.9 216 26,635 0.8
Other 124 20,538 0.6 80 10,704 0.7 44 9,834 0.4
Unknown/Missing 7 1,133 0.6 3 566 0.5 4 567 0.7
All Races 1,283 160,221 0.8 762 82,099 0.9 521 78,122 0.7
White 984 127,771 0.8 587 65,442 0.9 397 62,329 0.6
Black 247 25,508 1.0 143 13,067 1.1 104 12,441 0.8
Other 47 6,073 0.8 29 3,152 0.9 18 2,921 0.6
Unknown/Missing 5 869 0.6 3 438 0.7 2 431 0.5
All Races 651 98,231 0.7 353 50,488 0.7 298 47,743 0.6
White 353 54,513 0.6 195 28,013 0.7 158 26,500 0.6
Black 219 28,989 0.8 107 14,795 0.7 112 14,194 0.8
Other 77 14,465 0.5 51 7,552 0.7 26 6,913 0.4
Unknown/Missing 2 264 0.8 0 128 0.0 2 136 1.5

Section 1 - Table 4d
2001 Births - New York State Residents
Percent of Live Births with Two or More Major Malformations
Sex by Race and Residence
  Both Sexes Males Females
Race and Residence Infants Total Births % Infants Total Births % Infants Total Births %
All Races 1,911 253,378 0.8 1,164 129,723 0.9 747 123,655 0.6
White 1,344 180,517 0.7 821 92,335 0.9 523 88,182 0.6
Black 428 51,812 0.8 264 26,442 1.0 164 25,370 0.6
Other 137 19,998 0.7 77 10,423 0.7 60 9,575 0.6
Unknown/Missing 2 1,051 0.2 2 523 0.4 0 528 0.0
All Races 1,261 156,947 0.8 766 80,031 1.0 495 76,916 0.6
White 985 125,230 0.8 600 63,803 0.9 385 61,427 0.6
Black 215 24,806 0.9 132 12,669 1.0 83 12,137 0.7
Other 60 6,023 1.0 33 3,134 1.1 27 2,889 0.9
Unknown/Missing 1 888 0.1 1 425 0.2 0 463 0.0
All Races 650 96,431 0.7 398 49,692 0.8 252 46,739 0.5
White 359 55,287 0.6 221 28,532 0.8 138 26,755 0.5
Black 213 27,006 0.8 132 13,773 1.0 81 13,233 0.6
Other 77 13,975 0.6 44 7,289 0.6 33 6,686 0.5
Unknown/Missing 1 163 0.6 1 98 1.0 0 65 0.0