Appendix 6-3 - Sanitation Glossary
- Plural of bacterium. Bacteria are organisms that may be responsible for localized or generalized diseases and can survive in and out of the body. They are much larger than viruses and can usually be treated effectively with antibiotics.
- Having the ability to inhibit the growth of bacteria.
- Body fluids
- Urine, feces, saliva, blood, nasal discharge, eye discharge, and injury or tissue discharge.
- Used here to indicate the primary staff who work directly with the children, that is, director, teacher, aide, or others in the facility.
- Free of or the removal of dirt and debris (such as blood, urine, and feces) by scrubbing and washing with a detergent solution and rinsing with water.
- Having the presence of infectious microorganisms in or on the body, on environmental surfaces, on articles of clothing, or in food or water.
- To eliminate virtually all germs from inanimate surfaces with chemicals (e.g., products registered with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency as "disinfectants") or physical agents (e.g., heat). In the childcare environment, an effective disinfect is 1:64 dilution of domestic bleach made by mixing a solution of ¼ cup household liquid chlorine bleach with 1 gallon of tap water. It must be prepared fresh daily to remove bacteria from environmental surfaces and other inanimate objects that have been contaminated with body fluids (see Body fluids). It is necessary that the surfaces have first been cleaned (see Clean) of organic material before applying bleach and at least 2 minutes of contact time with the surface occurs. (Since complete elimination of all germs may not be achieved using the 1:64 dilution of domestic bleach solution, technically, the process is called sanitizing, not disinfecting. The term sanitize is used in these standards most often, but disinfect may appear in other or earlier publications when addressing sanitation in childcare.) To achieve maximum germ reduction with bleach, the pre-cleaned surfaces should be left moderately or glistening wet with the bleach solution and allowed to air dry or hand dried only after at least 2 minutes of contact time. A slight chlorine odor should emanate from this solution. If there is no chlorine smell, a new solution needs to be made, even if the solution was prepared that day. The 1:64 diluted solution will contain 500-800 parts per million (ppm) chlorine.
Two minutes of contact with a coating of a sprayed 1:64 diluted solution of ¼ cup household liquid chlorine bleach in one gallon of tap water prepared fresh daily is an effective method of surface-sanitizing of environmental surfaces and other inanimate objects that have first been thoroughly cleaned of organic soil. By itself, bleach is not a good cleaning agent. Household bleach is sold in the conventional strength of 5.25% hypochlorite and a more recently marketed 'ultra' bleach that contains 6% hypochlorite solution. In childcare, either may be used in a 1:64 dilution.
Bleach solutions much less concentrated than the recommended dilution have been shown in laboratory tests to kill high numbers of blood-borne viruses, including HIV and hepatitis B virus. This solution is not toxic if accidentally ingested by a child. However, since this solution is moderately corrosive, be careful handling it and when wetting or using it on items containing metals, especially aluminum. DO NOT MIX UNDILUTED BLEACH OR THE DILUTED BLEACH SOLUTION WITH OTHER FLUIDS, ESPECIALLY ACIDS (E.G., VINEGAR), AS THIS WILL RESULT IN THE RAPID EVOLUTION OF HIGHLY POISONOUS CHLORINE GAS.
Commercially prepared detergent-sanitizer solutions or detergent cleaning, rinsing, and application of a non-bleach sanitizer that is at least as effective as the chlorine bleach solution is acceptable as long as these products are nontoxic for children, are used according to the manufacturer's instructions, and are approved by the state or local health department for use as a disinfectant in place of the bleach solution.
These methods are used for toys, children's table tops, diaper changing tables, food utensils, and any other object or surface that is significantly contaminated with body fluids. Sanitizing food utensils can be accomplished by using a dishwasher or equivalent process, usually involving more dilute chemicals than are required for other surfaces.
- The legal definition is the buildings, the grounds, the equipment, and the people involved in providing child care of any type.
- Capable of causing an infection (a condition caused by the multiplication of an infectious agent in the body).
- A substance that removes/ The process of removing filth or soil and small amounts of certain bacteria. For an inanimate surface to be considered sanitary, the surface must be clean (see Clean) and the number of germs must be reduced to such a level that disease transmission by that surface is unlikely. This procedure is less rigorous than disinfection (see Disinfect) and is applicable to a wide variety of routine housekeeping procedures involving, for example, bedding, bathrooms, kitchen countertops, floors, and walls. To clean, detergent or abrasive cleaners may be used but an additional sanitizer solution must be applied to sanitize. A number of EPA-registered 'detergent/disinfectant' products are also appropriate for sanitizing. Directions on product labels must be followed closely. See APPENDIX 6-2 - SELECTING AN APPROPRIATE SANITIZER.
- Standard Precautions
- Apply to contact with non-intact skin, mucous membranes, and blood, all body fluids, and excretions except sweat, whether or not they contain visible blood. The general methods of infection prevention are indicated for all people in the childcare setting and are designed to reduce the risk of transmission of microorganisms from both recognized and unrecognized sources of infection. Although standard precautions are designed to apply to hospital settings, with the exceptions detailed in this definition, they also apply in childcare settings. Standard precautions involve use of barriers as in universal precautions, as well as the cleaning and sanitizing of contaminated surfaces.
- To pass an infectious organism or germ from person to person.