A. Obesity as a Major Public Health Problem

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Borra ST, Kelly L, Shirreffs MB, Neville K, Geiger CJ. Developing health messages: qualitative studies with children, parents, and teachers help identify communications opportunities for healthful lifestyles and the prevention of obesity. J Am Diet Assoc. 2003;103:721-728.

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Jain A, Sherman SN, Chamberlin DL, Carter Y, Powers SW, Whitaker RC. Why don't low-income mothers worry about their preschoolers being overweight? Pediatrics. 2001;107:1138-1146.

National Research Council. RAND Corporation Report; 1989.

NIH Publication no. 98-4083. Clinical Guidelines on the Identification, Evaluation, and Treatment of Overweight and Obesity in Adults: The Evidence Report. NHLBI (National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute); 1998.

B. Early Recognition of Overweight and Obesity

Allison DB, Paultre F, Heymsfield SB, Pi-Sunyer FX. Is the intra-uterine period really a critical period for the development of adiposity? Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1995;19(6):397-402.

American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP). Prevention of Pediatric Overweight and Obesity. Pediatrics. 2003;112:424-430.

Barker M, Robinson S, Osmond C, Barker D. Birth weight and body fat distribution in adolescent girls. Arch Dis Child. 1997;77:381-383.

Barlow S, Dietz W. Obesity evaluation and treatment: Expert Committee recommendations. The Maternal and Child Health Bureau, Health Resources and Services Administration and the Department of Health and Human Services. Pediatrics. 1998;102:E29.

Braddon FE, Rodgers B, Wadsworth ME, Davies JM. Onset of obesity in a 36-year birth cohort study. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed). 1986;293:299-303.

Charney E, Goodman HC, McBride M, Lyon B, Pratt R. Childhood antecedents of adult obesity. Do chubby infants become obese adults? N Engl J Med. 1976;295:6-9.

Dennison BA, Edmunds LS, Cen L, Zhu B, Statton H, Pruzek R. Rapid infant weight gain predicts overweight status at 4 years of age. Obes Res. 2003;11:A28.

Dietz WH. Critical periods in childhood for the development of obesity. Am J Clin Nutr. 1994;59:955-959.

Dietz WH. Periods of risk in childhood for the development of adult obesity-what do we need to learn? J Nutr. 1997;127(9):1884S-1886S.

Freedman DS, Kettel Khan L, Serdula MK, Srinivasan SR, Berenson GS. BMI rebound, childhood height and obesity among adults: the Bogalusa Heart Study. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2001;25:543-549.

Galuska DA, Will JC, Serdula MK, et al. Are health care professionals advising obese patients to lose weight? JAMA. 1999;282(16):1576-1578.

Goran M, Kaskoun M, Shuman W. Intra-abdominal adipose tissue in young children. Int J Obes.1995;19:279-283.

Hill JO, Peters JC. Environmental contributions to the obesity epidemic. Science. 1998;280(29):1371-1374.

Jain A, Sherman SN, Chamberlin DL, Carter Y, Powers SW, Whitaker RC. Why don't low-income mothers worry about their preschoolers being overweight? Pediatrics. 2001;107:1138-1146.

Kimm SY, Barton BA, Obarzanek E, McMahon RP, Sabry ZI, Waclawiw MA, Schreiber GB, Morrison JA, Similo S, Daniels SR. Racial divergence in adiposity during adolescence: The NHLBI Growth and Health Study. Pediatrics. 2001;107:E34.

Kimm SY, Glynn NW, Kriska AM, Barton BA, Kronsberg SS, Daniels SR, Crawford PB, Sabry ZI, Liu K. Decline in physical activity in black girls and white girls during adolescence. N Engl J Med. 2002;347:709-715.

Kramer MS, Barr RG, Leduc DG, Boisjoly C, McVey-White L, Pless IB. Determinants of weight and adiposity in the first year of life. J Pediatr. 1985;106(1):10-4.

Kristeller JL, Hoerr RA. Physician attitudes toward managing obesity: differences among six specialty groups. Prev Med. 1997;26:542-549.

Kuh D, Hardy R, Chaturvedi N, Wadsworth MEJ. Birth weight, childhood growth and abdominal obesity in adult life. Int J Obes. 2002;26:40-47.

Hulman S, Kushner H, Katz S, Falkner B. Can cardiovascular risk be predicted by newborn, childhood, and adolescent body size? An examination of longitudinal data in urban African Americans. J Pediatr. 1998;132(1):90-7.

Institute of Medicine. Nutrition during pregnancy, weight gain and nutrient supplements. Report of the Subcommittee on Nutritional Status and Weight Gain during Pregnancy, Subcommittee on Dietary Intake and Nutrient Supplements during Pregnancy, Committee on Nutritional Status during Pregnancy and Lactation, Food and Nutrition Board. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1990:1-233.

Laitinen J, Power C, Jarvelin MR. Family social class, maternal Body Mass Index, childhood Body Mass Index, and age at menarche as predictors of adult obesity. Am J Clin Nutr. 2001;74:287-294.

Law CM, Barker DJ, Osmond C, Fall CH, Simmonds SJ. Early growth and abdominal fatness in adult life. J Epidemiol Comm Health. 1992;46:184-186.

Lewis CE, Wells KB. A model for predicting the counseling practice of physicians. J Gen Intern Med. 1985;1:14-9.

McCance DR, Pettitt DJ, Hanson RL, Jacobsson LT, Bennett PH, Knowler WC. Glucose, insulin concentrations and obesity in childhood and adolescence as predictors of NIDDM. Diabetologia. 1994;37:617-623.

Mi J, Law CM, Zhang K, Liu S, Xu H, Shen Y, Liu J, Xu Y. Association of body size at birth with impaired glucose tolerance during their adulthood for men and women aged 41 to 47 years in Beijing of China. Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi. 1999;33:209-213.

Nawaz H, Adams ML, Katz DL. Weight loss counseling by health care providers. Am J Public Health. 1999;89:764-767.

O'Brien SH, Holubkov R, Reis EC. Identification, evaluation, and management of obesity in an academic primary care center. Pediatrics. 2004;114:154-159.

Okosun IS, Liao Y, Rotimi CN, Prewitt TE, Cooper RS. Abdominal adiposity and clustering of multiple metabolic syndrome in White, Black and Hispanic Americans. Ann Epidemiol. 2000;10(5):263-270.

Olson CM, Strawderman MS, Hinton PS, Pearson TA. Gestational weight gain and postpartum behaviors associated with weight change from early pregnancy to 1 y postpartum. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2003;27(1):117-127.

Phillips DI. Birth weight and the future development of diabetes. A review of the evidence. Diabetes Care. 1998;21(Suppl 2):B150-155.

Robinson TN, Killen J. Obesity prevention for children and adolescents. In: Thompson J, Smolak L, eds. Body Image, Eating Disorders and Obesity in Youth: Asessment, Prevention and Treatment: Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association; 2001.

Rolland-Cachera MF, Deheeger M, Bellisle F, Sempe M, Guilloud-Bataille M, Patois E. Adiposity rebound in children: a simple indicator for predicting obesity. Am J Clin Nutr. 1984;39:129-135.

Rolland-Cachera MF, Deheeger M, Guilloud-Bataille M, Avons P, Patois E, Sempe M. Tracking the development of adiposity from one month of age to adulthood. Ann Hum Biol. 1987;14:219-229.

Stettler N, Zemel BS, Kumanyika S, Stallings VA. Infant weight gain and childhood overweight status in a multicenter, cohort study. Pediatrics. 2002;109(2):194-199.

Taira DA, Safran DG, Seto TB, et al. The relationship between patient income and physician discussion of health risk behaviors. JAMA. 1997;278(5):1412-17.

Valdez R, Athens MA, Thompson GH, Bradshaw BS, Stern MP. Birth weight and adult health outcomes in a bi-ethnic population in the USA. Diabetologia. 1994;37:624-631.

Vanhala MJ, Vanhala PT, Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi SM, Kumpusalo EA, Takala JK. Relative weight gain and obesity as a child predict metabolic syndrome as an adult. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1999;23(6):656-659.

Whitaker RC, Pepe MS, Wright JA, Seidel KD, Dietz WH. Early adiposity rebound and the risk of adult obesity. Pediatrics. 1998;101:E5.

Whitaker RC, Wright JA, Pepe MS, Seidel KD, Dietz WH. Predicting obesity in young adulthood from childhood and parental obesity. N Engl J Med. 1997;337:869-873.

Williams S, Davie G, Lam F. Predicting BMI in young adults from childhood data using two approaches to modeling adiposity rebound. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1999;23(4):348-354.

World Health Organization (WHO). Global Strategy on Diet, Physical Activity and Health (2004).

C. Obesity-related Diseases

Anderson JJ, Felson DT. Factors associated with osteoarthritis of the knee in the first national Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES I). Evidence for an association with overweight, race, and physical demands of work. Am J Epidemiol. 1988;128:179-189.

Buchner D, Wagner E. Preventing frail health. Clin Geriatr Med. 1992;8:1-17.

Bukowski, Lewis, Gamble, Wojcik and Laumbach. Range-finding study of risk factors for childhood asthma development and national asthma prevalence. Human Ecol Risk Assess. 2001;8:735-765.

Calle EE, Rodriguez C, Walker-Trumond K, Thun MJ. Overweight, obesity, and mortality from cancer in a prospectively studied cohort of U.S. adults. New Engl J Med. 2003;348(17):1625-1638.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Arthritis Foundation National Office, National Arthritis Action Plan, A Public Health Strategy. Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 1999.

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Chandler J, Hadley E. Exercise to improve physiologic and functional performance in old age. Clin Geriatr Med. 1996;12:761-784.

Dabelea D, Pettitt DJ. Intrauterine diabetic environment confers risks for type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity in the offspring, in addition to genetic susceptibitlity. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. 2001;14(8)1085-1091.

Davis MA, Ettinger WH, Neuhaus JM. Obesity and osteoarthritis of the knee: evidence from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES I). Semin Arthritis Rheum. 1990;20:34-41.

DiPeitro L. The epidemiology of physical activity and physical function in older people. Med Sci Sport Exer. 1996;28:596-600.

Felson DT, Zhang Y, Anthony JM, Naimark A, Anderson JJ. Weight loss reduces the risk for symptomatic knee osteoarthritis in women. The Framingham Study. Ann Intern Med; 1992;116(7):535-9.

Felson DT. Osteoarthritis. Rheum Dis Clin North Am. 1990;16:499-512.

Finch CF, Owen N, Price R. Current injury or disability as a barrier to being more physically active.Med Sci Sport Exerc. 2001;33:778-82

Finkelstein E, Fiebelkorn I, Wang G. National medical spending attributable to overweight and obesity: how much and who's paying? Health Affair. 2003;W3:219-26.

Fontaine KR, Redden DT, Wang C, Westfall AO, Allison DB. Years of life lost due to obesity. JAMA. 2003;289(2):187-193.

Gillum R. The association of body fat distribution with hypertension, hypertensive heart disease, coronary heart disease, diabetes and cardiovascular risk factors in men and women age 18-79 years. J Chronic Dis. 1987;40(5):421-8.

Heath G, Fenton P. Physical activity among adults with disabilities - a public health perspective. Exerc Sport Rev. 1997;25:195-234.

Hubert HB, Feinlab M, et al. Obesity as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease: a 26-year follow-up of participants in the Framingham Heart Study. Circulation. 1983;67:968-977.

Koplan JP, Liverman CT, Kraak VI, eds. Preventing Childhood Obesity. Health in the Balance. Pre-publication copy. Committee on Prevention of Obesity in Children in Youth. Food and Nutrition Board and Board of Health Promotion and Disease Prevention. Institute of Medicine. Washington DC: National Academy Press; 2004

Klein S, Sheard NF, Pi-Sunyer X, Daly A, Wylie-Rosett J, Kulkarni K, Clark NG. Weight management through lifestyle modification for the prevention and management of type 2 diabetes: rationale and strategies. A statement of the American Diabetes Association for the Study of Obesity, and the American Society for Clinical Nutrition. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004;80:257-63.

Krauss RM, Winston M, Fletcher RN, Grundy SM. Obesity: impact of cardiovascular disease. Circulation. 1998;98:1472-1476.

Lindstrom J, Louheranta A, Mannelin M, Rastas M, Salminen V, Eriksson J, Uusitupa M, Tuomilehto J. The Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study (DPS). Lifestyle intervention and 3-year results on diet and physical activity. Diabetes Care. 2003;26(12):3230-3236.

Luder E. Obesity and asthma: complex interactions. Topics in Clinical Nutrition. 2002;17(3):23-30.

McGill HC Jr, McMahan DA, Herderick EE, et al; Pathobiological Determinants of Atherosclerosis Youth (PDAY) Research Group. Obesity accelerates the progression of coronary atherosclerosis in young men. Circulation. 2002;105(23):2712-2718.

McGinnis JM, Foege WH. Actual causes of death in the United States. JAMA. 1993;270(18):2207-2212.

Medical Letter on the CDC and FDA. July 28, 2002. Asthma: Obesity and smoking increase risk. BRFSS. 2002.

Mokdad AH, Marks JS, Stroup JL, Gerberding JL. Actual Causes of Death in the United States, 2000. JAMA. 2004;291:1238-1245. [erratum, JAMA. 2005;293:293-294].

Morey MC, et al. Physical fitness and functional limitations in community-dwelling older adults. Med Sci Sport Exer. 1998;30:715-723.

National Institutes of Health (NIH). Clinical guidelines on the identification, evaluation and treatment of overweight and obesity in adults: The evidence report. Washington, D.C.; 1998.

Okoson I, Choi S, Dent M, et al. Abdominal obesity defined as a larger than expected waist girth is associated with racial/ethnic differences in risk of hypertension. J Hum Hypertens. 2001;15(5):307-312.

Parateukel S, Lovejoy J, et al. The relation of gender, race and socioeconomic status to obesity and obesity co-morbidities in a sample of U.S. adults. Int J Obes Relat Disord. 2002;26(9):1205-1210.

Pastor PN, Makuc DM, Reuben C, Xia H. Chartbook on Trends in the Health of Americans. Health, United States, 2002. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics. 2002.

Perry IJ. Healthy diet and lifestyle clustering and glucose intolerance. P Nutr Soc. 2002;61: 543-51.

Redd S. Asthma in the United States: burden and current theories. Environ Health Persp. 2002;110(Suppl 4):557-560.

Rikli R, Jones C. Assessing physical performance in independent older adults: Issues and guidelines. J Aging Phys Activ. 1997;5(3):244-261.

Rimm EB, Stampfer MJ, et al. Body size and fat distribution as predictors of coronary heart disease among middle-aged and older U.S. men. Am J Epidemiol. 1995;141:1117-27.

Rissanen AM et al. Determinants of weight gain and overweight in adult Finns. Eur J Clin Nutr. 1991;45: 419-430.

Rosenbaum M, Nonas C, Horlick M, et al. beta-Cell function and insulin sensitivity in early adolescence: association with body fatness and family history of type 2 diabetes mellitus. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004;89(11):5469-5476.

Shaheen S. Obesity and asthma: Cause for concern? Clin Exp Allergy. 1999;29:291-293.

Stenius-Aarniala B, Poussa T, Kvarnstrom J, et al. Immediate and long term effects of weight reduction in obese people with asthma: randomized controlled study. Brit Med J. 2000;320:827-832.

Stettler N, Zemel BS, Kumanyika S, Stallings VA. Infant weight gain and childhood overweight status in a multicenter, cohort study. Pediatrics. 2002;109(2):194-199.

Stevens J, Cai J, Evenson K, Thomas R. Fitness and fatness as predictors of mortality from all causes and from cardiovascular disease in men and women in the lipid research clinics study. Am J Epidemiol. 2002;156:832-841.

Sturm R. The effects of obesity, smoking, and drinking on medical problems and costs. Obesity outranks both smoking and drinking in its deleterious effects on health and health costs. Health Aff. 2002;21(2):245-53.

Thompson D, Edelsberg J, Colditz GA, Bird AP, Oster G. Lifetime health and economic consequences of obesity. Arch Intern Med. 1999;159(18):2177-2183.

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. The Surgeon General's Call to Action to Prevent and Decrease Overweight and Obesity. Rockville, Md., Public Health Service, Office of the Surgeon General; 2001.

Von Kries R, et al. Is obesity a risk factor in childhood asthma? Allergy. 2001;56:318-322.

Walker S, et al. Body size and fat distribution as predictors of stroke among U.S. men. Am J Epidemiol. 1996;144:1143-1150.

Wellman N, Friedberg B. Causes and consequences of adult obesity: health, social and economic impacts in the United States. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2002;Suppl 8:S705-S709.

Wolf AM, Colditz GA. Current estimates of the economic cost of obesity in the United States. Obes Res. 1998;6:97-106.

Wortmann RL. Gout and hyperuricemia. Curr Opin Rheumatol. 2002;14:281-6.

D. Breastfeeding

Auerbach KG, Guss E. Maternal employment and breastfeeding: a study of 567 women's experiences. Am J Dis Child. 1984;138:958-960.

Ball TM, Wright AL. Health care costs of formula-feeding in the first year of life. Pediatrics. 1999;103:870-876.

Dewey, KG. Is breastfeeding protective against child obesity? J Hum Lact; 2003, 19(1):9-18.

Gielen AC, Faden RR, O'Campo P, Brown H, Paige DM. Maternal employment during the early postpartum period: effects on initiation and continuation of breast-feeding. Pediatrics. 1991;87:298-305.

Hills-Bonczyk SG, Avery MD, Savik K, Potter S, Duckett LJ. Women's experiences with combining breast-feeding and employment. J Nurse Midwifery. 1993;38:257-266.

Kurinij N, Shiono PH, Ezrine SF, Rhoads GG. Does maternal employment affect breast-feeding? Am J Public Health. 1989;79:1247-1250.

Li R, Zhao Z, et al. Prevalence of breastfeeding in the United States: the 2001 National Immunization Survey. Pediatrics. 2003;111(5 Part 2):1198-201.

Naylor, AJ. Baby-friendly hospital initiative: Protecting, promoting, and supporting breastfeeding the twenty-first century. Pediatr Clin North Amer. 2001;48(2):475-483.

Rosenberg KD, McMurtrie C, et al. Breast-feeding initiation in New York City, 1979 to 1996. Am J Public Health. 1998;88:1850-1852.

Schanler RJ, O'Connor KG, et al. Pediatricians' practices and attitudes regarding breastfeeding promotion. Pediatrics. 1999;103:E35.

Visness CM, Kennedy KI. Maternal employment and breast-feeding: Findings from the 1998 national maternal and infant health survey. Am J of Public Health 1997;87(6):945-950.

Williams LM, Morrow B, Lansky A, et al. CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention). Surveillance for selected maternal behaviors and experiences before, during, and after pregnancy. Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS), 2000. MMWR Surveill Summ. 2003 Nov 14;52(11):1-14.

E. Nutrition and Dietary Determinants

Appel L, Moore T, Obarzanek E, Vollmer W, et al. A clinical trial of the effects of dietary patterns on blood pressure. DASH Collaborative Research Group. N Engl J Med. 1997;336(16):1117-1124.

Bazzano LA, He J, Ogden L, Loria C, Vespputuri S, Myers L, Whelton PK. Fruit and vegetable intake and risk of cardiovascular disease in U.S. adults: the first National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey epidemiological follow-up study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2002;76(1):93-99.

Bell E, Castellanos V, Pelleman C, et al. Energy density of foods affects energy intake in normal-weight women. Am J Clin Nutr. 1988;67(3):412-420.

Bowman SA, Gortmaker SL, Ebbeling CB, Pereira MA, Ludwig DS. Effects of fast-food consumption on energy intake and diet quality among children in a national household survey. Pediatrics. 2004;113:112-118.

Briefel R, Johnson C. Secular trends in dietary intake in the United States. Annu. Rev. Nut. 2004;24:401-431.

Carruth B, Skinner J. The role of dietary calcium and other nutrients in modulating body fat in preschool children. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2001;25(4):559-566.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Survey Data. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; 2002.

Cullen K, Ash D, Warneke C, de Moor C. Intake of soft drinks, fruit flavored beverages, and fruits and vegetables by children grades 4 through 6. Am J Public Health. 2002;92(9):1475-1478.

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Devaney B, Ziegler P, Pac S, Karive V, Barr S. Nutrient intake of infants and toddlers. J Am Diet Assoc. 2004;104:S14-S21.

Diliberti N, Bordi P, Conklin M, Roe L, Rolls B. Increased portion size leads to increased energy intake in a restaurant meal. Obes Res. 2004;12(3):562-568.

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Guthrie J, Morton J. Food sources of sweeteners in the diets of Americans. J Am Diet Assoc. 2000;100(1):43-51.

Guthrie J. USDA. Understanding fruit and vegetable choices: Economic and behavioral influences. Agriculture Information Bulletin Number 792-1; 2004.

Kranz S, Siega-Riz A, Herring A. Changes in diet quality of American preschoolers between 1977 and 1998. Am J Public Health. 2004;94:1525-1530.

Law M, Morris J. By how much does fruit and vegetable consumption reduce the risk of ischemic heart disease? Eur J Clin Nutr. 1998;52(8):549-556.

Lin Y, Lyle R, McCabe L, et al. Dairy calcium is related to changes in body composition during a twoyear exercise intervention in young women. J Am Coll Nutr. 2000;19(6):754-760.

Ludwig D, Peterson K, Gortmaker S. Relationship between consumption of sugar-sweetened drinks and childhood obesity: a prospective observational analysis. Lancet. 2001;357(9255):505-508.

McConahy K, Smiciklas-Wright H, Mitchell D, Picciano M. Portion size of common foods predicts energy intake among preschool-aged children. J Am Diet Assoc. 2004;104(6):975-979.

McCrory M, Fuss P, McCallum J, Yao M, et al. Dietary variety within food groups: association with energy intake and body fatness in men and women. Am J Clin Nutr. 1999;69:440-447.

McCrory MA, Fuss PJ, Saltzman E, Roberts SB. Dietary determinants of energy intake and weight regulation in healthy adults. J Nutr. 2000;130(2S Suppl):276S-279S. Review.

Nielsen S, Popkin B. Changes in beverage intake between 1977 and 1998. Am J. Prev Med. 2004;27(3):205-210.

Nielsen S, Popkin B. Patterns and trends in food portion sizes, 1977-1998. JAMA. 2003;289:450-453.

Ogden C, Flegal K, Carroll M, Johnson C. Prevalence and trends in overweight among U.S. children and adolescents, 1999-2000. JAMA. 2002;288:1728-1732.

Pearcy S, De Castro J. Food intake and meal patterns of weight-stable and weight-gaining persons. Am J Clin Nutr. 2002;76(1):107-112.

Pereira MA, Jacobs DR Van Horn L, Slattery ML, Kartashov AI, Ludwig DS. Dairy Consumption, Obesity, and the Insulin Resistance Syndrome in Young Adults: The CARDIA Study. JAMA. 2002;287:2081-2089.

Rolls B, Bell E, et al. Water incorporated into a food but not served with a food decreases energy intake in lean women. Am J Clin Nutr. 1999;70:448-455.

Rolls B, Bell E. Dietary approaches to the treatment of obesity. Med Clin North Am. 2000;84(2):401-418.

Rolls B, Ello-Martin J, Tohill B. What can intervention studies tell us about the relationship between fruit and vegetable consumption and weight management? Nutr Rev. 2004;62(1):1-17.

Rolls B, Morris E, Roe L. Portion size of food affects energy intake in normal weight and overweight men and women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2002;76(6):1207-1213.

Rolls B, Roe L, Kral T, Meengs J, Wall D. Increasing the portion size of a packaged snack increases energy intake in men and women. Appetite. 2004;42(1):63-69.

Skinner J, Bonds W, Carruth B, Ziegler P. Longitudinal Calcium intake is negatively related to children's body fat indexes. J Am Diet Assoc. 2003;103(12):1626-1631.

Smiciklas-Wright H, Michell D, Michle S, Goldman J, Cook A. Foods commonly eaten in the United States, 1989-1991 and 1994-1996: are portion sizes changing? J Am Diet Assoc. 2003;103:41-47.

Stewart H, Blisard N, Bhuyan S, Nayga RM. Demand for food away from home: Full service or fast food? USDA Agricultural Economic Report No. (AER829); 2004.

Stewart HJ, Harris M, Guthrie J. What Determines the Variety of Household Vegetable Purchases? U.S. Dept. of Agriculture Information Bulletin No. (AIB792-3); 2004.

Thompson O, Baller C, Resnicow K, et al. Food purchased away from home as a predictor of change in BMI z-score among girls. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2004;28(2):282-289.

Trends in Intake of Energy and Macronutrients - United States, 1971-2000. MMWR: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 2004.

U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service. Dietary Guidelines Committee. Nutrition and your health: Dietary Guidelines for Americans, Fourth Edition;2000.

U.S. Dept. of Agriculture; Agricultural Research Service, Dietary Guidelines Committee. Nutrition and your health: Dietary Guidelines for Americans, Fifth Edition;2005.

Young L, Nestle M. The contribution of expanding portion sizes to the U.S. obesity epidemic. Am J Public Health. 2002;92:246-249.

Zemel M, Thompson W, Milstead A, et al. Calcium and dairy acceleration of weight and fat loss during energy restriction in obese adults. Obes Res. 2004;12(4):582-590.

Zemel M. Regulation of adiposity and obesity risk by dietary calcium: mechanisms and implications. J Am Coll Nutr. 2002;21(2):1465-1515.

Zemel M. Role of calcium and dairy products in energy partitioning and weight management. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004;79(suppl):907S-912S.

Parental Influences

Baughcum A, Chamberlain L, Deeks C, Powers S, Whitaker R. Maternal perceptions of overweight preschool children. Pediatrics. 2000;6:1380-1386.

Birch L, Birch D, Marlin D, Kramer L. Effects of instrumental consumption on children's food preference. Appetite. 1982;3(2):125-34.

Birch L, Zimmerman S, Hind H. The influence of social-affective context on the formation of children's food preferences. Child Development. 1980;51(3):856-861.

Davison K, Birch L. Predictors of change in girls' Body Mass Index between ages 5 to 7 years. Obesity Res. 2000;8(Suppl 1):18S.

Davison K, Birch L. Child and parent characteristics as predictors of change in girls' Body Mass Index. Int J Obesity 2001a; 25(12):1834-1842.

Davison K, Birch L. Weight status, parental reaction and self-concept among 5-year-old girls. Pediatrics. 2001b;107:46-53.

Davison K, Birch L. Childhood overweight: a contextual model and recommendations for future research. Obesity Rev. 2001;2:159-171.

Dennison B, Jenkins P, Erb T, Rockwell H. Early Childhood Obesity Not Recognized by Most Parents. Pediatr Res. 2000;47:25A.

Dietz W. Childhood obesity: susceptibility, cause and management. J Pediatr. 1983;103(5):676-686.

Johnson S, Birch L. Parents' and children's adiposity and eating style. Pediatrics. 1994; 94(5):653-661.

Klesges R, Klesges L, Eck L, Shelton M. A longitudinal analysis of accelerated weight gain in preschool children. Pediatrics. 1995;95(1):126-130.

Klesges R, Malott J, Boschee P, Weber J. The effects of parental influences on children's food intake, physical activity, and relative weight. Int J Eat Dis. 1986;5(2):335-46.

Klesges R, Stein R, Eck L, Isbell T. Parental influence on food selection in young children and its relationships to childhood obesity. Am J Clin Nutr. 1991;53:859-64.

Moore L, Lombardi D, White M, et al. Influence of parents' physical activity levels on activity levels of young children. J Pediatr. 1991;118(2):215-19.

Association Between Obesity/Food Insecurity

Adams EJ, Grummer-Strawn L, Chavez G. Food insecurity is associated with increased risk of obesity in California women. J Nutr. 2003;133:1070-1074.

Bhattacharya J, DeLeire T, Haider S, Currie, J. Heat or eat? Cold-weather shocks and nutrition in poor American families. Am J Public Health. 2003;93:1149-1154.

Bickel G, Nord M, Price C, Hamilton W, Cook J. Guide to Measuring Household Food Security. Alexandria VA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food and Nutrition Service; 2000.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Self-reported concern about food security associated with obesity. Washington; Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 2003:840-842.

Drewnowski A, Specter SE. Poverty and obesity: The role of energy density and energy costs. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004;79(1):6-16.

Olson CM. Nutrition and health outcomes associated with food insecurity and hunger. J Nutr. 1999;129:521S-524S.

Townsend MS, Peerson J, Love B, Achterberg C, Murphy SP. Food insecurity is positively related to overweight in women. J Nutr. 2001;131(6):1738-1745.

F. Physical Activity

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Arthritis Foundation National Office, National Arthritis Action Plan, A Public Health Strategy. Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 1999.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Increasing physical activity: a report on recommendations of the Task Force on Community Preventive Services. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 2001;(50)RR-18:1-16.

Diabetes Prevention Program Research Group, Reduction in the Incidence of Type 2 Diabetes with Lifestyle Intervention or Metformin. New Engl J Med. 2002;346(6):393-403.

Ewing R, Schmid T, Killingsworth R, et al. Relationship between urban sprawl and physical activity, obesity, and morbidity. Am J Health Promot. 2003;18:47-57.

Koplan JP, Liverman CT, Kraak VI, eds. Preventing Childhood Obesity. Health in the Balance. Pre-publication copy. Committee on Prevention of Obesity in Children in Youth. Food and Nutrition Board and Board of Health Promotion and Disease Prevention. Institute of Medicine. Washington DC: National Academy Press; 2004

Jakicic JM, Clark K, Coleman E, Donnelly JE, Foreyt J, Melanson E, Volek J, Volpe SL; American College of Sports Medicine. Appropriate intervention strategies for weight loss and prevention of weight regain for adults. Med Sci Sport Exer. 2001;33(12):2145-2156.

Mokdad AH, Ford ES, Bowman BA, Dietz WH, Vinicor F, Bales VS, Marks JS. Prevalence of obesity, diabetes, and obesity-related health risk factors, 2001. [erratum, JAMA. 2005;293:293-294]. JAMA. 2003;289(1):76-9.

National Association for Sport and Physical Education. Physical Activity for Children: A Statement of Guidelines for Children 5-12. Reston, VA: National Association for Sport and Physical Education; 2004.

National Institutes of Health, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III), NIH Publication No. 02-5215, Rockville, MD: National Cholesterol Education Program; 2002.

National Institutes of Health. Clinical Guidelines on the Identification, Evaluation, and Treatment of Overweight and Obesity in Adults, NIH Publication No. 98-4083, Rockville, MD: National Institutes of Health; 1998.

President's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports, Physical activity protects against the health risks of obesity, Research Digest; 2000(12)3.

Saelens B, et al. Neighborhood-based differences in physical activity: an environment scale evaluation. Am J Public Health. 2003(93):1552-1558.

Saris WM, et al. How much physical activity is enough to prevent unhealthy weight gain? Outcome of the IASO 1st Stock Conference and consensus statement. Obes Rev. 2003;4:101-114.

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Physical Activity and Health: A Report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; 1996.

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Physical Activity and Good Nutrition: Essential Elements to Prevent Chronic Diseases and Obesity 2004. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; 2004.

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Bone Health and Osteoporosis: A Report of the Surgeon General. Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the Surgeon General; 2004.

G. Television Viewing

American Academy of Pediatrics, Committee on Public Education. Children, Adolescents, and Television. Pediatrics. 2001;107:423-26.

American Obesity Association. Prevalence and Trends. (Accessed 19 July 2004).

Anderson RE, Crespo CJ, Bartlett SJ, Cheskin LJ, Pratt, M. Relationship of Physical Activity and Television Watching With Body Weight and Level of Fatness Among Children. JAMA. 1998;279(12):938-942.

Borzekowski DG, Robinson TN. Pitching to preschoolers: the impact of televised food commercials on a sample of Head Start children. J Am Diet Assoc. 2001;101:42-6.

Brown JD, Childers KW, Bauman KE, Koch GG. The Influence of the New Media and Family Structure on Young Adolescents' Television and Radio Use. Commun Res. 1990;17:65-82.

Coon K, Goldberg J, Rogers B, Tucker K. Relationships between use of television during meals and children's food consumption patterns. Pediatrics. 2001:107(e7).

Dennison BA, Erb TA, Jenkins, PL. Televison Viewing and Television in Bedroom Associated with Overweight Risk Among Low-Income Preschool Children. Pediatrics. 2002;109(6):1028-35.

Dennison BA, Russo TJ, Burdick PA, Jenkins PL. An intervention to reduce television viewing by preschool children. Arch Pediat Adol Med. 2004;158(2):170-176.

Ford B Sophia BS, McDonald, TE, Owens A, Robinson T. Primary care interventions to reduce television viewing in African-American culture. Am J Prev Med. 2002;22(2):106-109.

French S, Story M, Neumark-Sztainer D, Fulkerson J, Hannan P. Fast food restaurant use among adolescents: associations with nutrient intake, food choices and behavioral and psychosocial variables. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2001;25(12):1823-33.

Gamble M, Cotunga N. A quarter century of TV food advertising targeted at children. Am J Health Behav. 1999;23:261-267.

Gentile DA, Walsh DA. A normative study of family media habits. App Develop Psych. 2002;23:157-78.

Gortmaker SL, Cheung L, Peterson KE, et al. Impact of a School-Based Interdisciplinary Intervention on Diet and Physical Activity Among Urban Primary School Children - Eat Well and Keep Moving. Arch Pediat Adol Med. 1999;153(9):975-83.

Kotz K, Story M. Food advertisements during children's Saturday morning television programming: are they consistent with dietary recommendations? J Am Diet Assoc. 1994;94:1296-1300.

Robinson T. Reducing children's television viewing to prevent obesity: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 1999;282:1561-1567.

Robinson TN, Killen J. Obesity prevention for children and adolescents. In: Thompson J, Smolak L, eds. Body image, eating disorders and obesity in youth: assessment, prevention and treatment. 2001.

Robinson TN. Television viewing and childhood obesity. Pediatr Clin North Am. 2001;48:1017-1025.

Task Force on Community Preventive Services. Recommendations to increase physical activity in communities. Am J Prev Med. 2002;22(4S):67-72.

The Surgeon General's Call to Action to Prevent and Decrease Overweight and Obesity, 2001. , (accessed 7 July 2004).

Vandewater EA, Shim M, Caplovitz AG. Linking obesity and activity level with children's television and video game use. J Adolescence. 2004;27:71-85.

Woodard EH. Media in the Home: The Fifth Annual Survey of Parents and Children. The Annenberg Public Policy Center. 2000. (accessed 15 October 2003).


CSPI (Center for Science in the Public Interest). Pestering Parents: How food companies market obesity to children. Washington DC: CSPI.

Gallo AE. Food advertising in the United States. In: Frazao E, ed. America's Eating Habits: Changes and Consequences. Washington DC: USDA. Agriculture Information Bulletin Number 750.

Gamble M, Cotunga N. A quarter century of television food advertising targeted at children. Am J Health Behavior. 1999;23(4):261-267.

Hastings G, Stead M, McDermott L, Forsyth A, MacKintosh A, Rayner M, Godfrey C, Caraher M, Angus K, Glasgow, UK. Review of Research on the Effects of Food Promotion to Children. Center for Social Marketing, University of Stratclyde. Glasgow, UK.

Horgen KB, Choate M, Brownell KD, Singer DG, Singer JL, eds. Television food advertising: Targeting children in a toxic environment. Thousand Oaks, CA: Handbook of Children and the Media. 2001;447-461.

Institute of Medicine. Preventing Childhood Obesity: Health in the Balance. Eds: Koplan JP, Liverman CT, Kraak VI. 2004, Pre-publication copy.

Kaiser Family Foundation. The role of media in childhood obesity. Menlo Park, CA: Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation; 2004.

Kotz K, Story M. Food advertisements during children's Saturday morning television programming: Are they consistent with dietary recommendations? J Am Diet Assoc. 1994;94(11):1296-1300.

Kunkel D, Wilcox BL, Cantor J, Dowrick P, Linn S, Palmer E. Report of the APA task force on advertising and children. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association; 2004.

Mokdad AH, Serdula MK, Dietz WH, Bowman BA, Marks JS, Koplan JP. The continuing epidemics of obesity in the United States. JAMA. 2000;286(10):1195-1200.

Nestle M, Jacobson MF. Halting the Obesity Epidemic: A public health policy approach. Public Health Rep. 2000;115(1):12-24.

Pietinen P, Lahti-Koski M, Vartiainen E, Puska P. Nutrition and cardiovascular disease in Finland since the early 1970's: a success story. J Nutr Health Aging. 2001;5(3):150-154.

Puska P, Tuomilehto J, Salonen J et al. The North Karelia project: Evaluation of a Comprehensive Community Programme for Control of Cardiovascular Diseases in 1972-77 in North Karelia, Finland. Copenhagen, Denmark: World Health Organization/EURO Monograph Series; 1981.

Tirodkar MA, Jain A. Food messages on African American television shows. Am J Public Health. 2003;93(3):439-441.

Villani S. Impact of media on children and adolescents: A 10-year review of the research. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2001;40(4):392-401.

Willett WC, Domolky S. Strategic Plan for the Prevention and Control of Overweight and Obesity in New England. The New England Coalition for Health Promotion and Disease Prevention.

Williams JD, Achterberg C, Sylvester GP. Target marketing of food products to ethnic minority youth. Ann NY Acad Sci. 1993;699:107-114.

H. Policy and Environmental Change

Abrams DB. Conceptual models to integrate individual and public health interventions: the example of the workplace. Seattle, WA: Proceedings of the International Conference on Promoting Dietary Change in Communities; The Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center. 1991:170-190.

Association of State and Territorial Directors of Health Promotion and Public Health Education/US Centers for Disease Control, Policy and Environmental Change: New Directions for Public Health. 2001: 15.

Briggs M, Safaii S, Beall DL. Position of the American Dietetic Association, Society for Nutrition Education, and American School Food Service Association-Nutrition Services: An essential component of comprehensive school health programs. J Am Diet Assoc. 2003;103:505-514.

Brownson RC, Baker EA, Housemann RA, Brennan LK, Bacak SJ. Environmental and Policy Determinants of Physical Activity in the United States. Am J Public Health. 2001;91(12):1995-2003.

Brownson RC, Smith CA, Pratt M, et al. Preventing cardiovascular disease through community-based risk reduction: The Bootheel Heart Health Project. Am J Public Health. 1996:86(2).

French SA, Story M, Fulkerson JA. School food policies and practices: a state-wide survey of secondary school principals. J Am Diet Assoc. 2002;102(12):1785-1789.

French SA. Pricing effects on food choices. J Nutr. 2003;133(3):841-843.

Hill JO, Wyatt HR, Reed GW, Peters JC. Obesity and the environment: Where do we go from here? Science. 2003;299:853-55.

Humpel N, Owen N, Leslie E. Environmental Factors Associated with Adults' Participation in Physical Activity. Am J Prev Med. 2002;22(3):188-199.

Kubik MY, Lytle LA, Hannan PJ, Perry CL, Story, M. The association of the school food environment with dietary behaviors of young adolescents. Am J Public Health. 2003;93:1168-1173.

Lasater T, Abrams D, Artz L, et al. Lay volunteer delivery of a community-based cardiovascular risk factor change program: the Pawtucket Experiment. New York: Behavioral Health: A Handbook of Health Enhancement and Disease Prevention. 1984:1166-1170.

Luepker RV, Perry CL, McKinlay SM, et al. Outcomes of a field trial to improve children's dietary patterns and physical activity. The Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health. CATCH collaborative group. JAMA. 1996:275.

Morland K, Wing S, Diez Roux A, and Poole C. Neighborhood characteristics associated with the location of food stores and food service places. Am J Prev Med. 2002;22(1):23-9.

Morland K, Wing S, Diez Roux A. The contextual effect of the local food environment on residents' diets: the atherosclerosis risk in communities study. Am J. Public Health. 2002;92:1761-1767.

Sallis JF, McKenzie TL, Alcaraz JE, Kolody B, Faucette N, Hovell MF. The effects of a 2-year physical education program (SPARK) on physical activity and fitness in elementary school students. Sports, Play, and Active Recreation for Kids. Am J Public Health. 1997;87:1328-1334.

Sloane DC, Diamant AL, Lewis LB, et al. Improving the nutritional resource environment for healthy living through community-based participatory research. J Gen Intern Med. 2003;18(7):568.

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. The Surgeon General's Call to Action to Prevent and Decrease Overweight and Obesity. Rockville, MD: Public Health Service, Office of the Surgeon General; 2001.