Part 5, Subpart 5-1, Acceptable Methods for the Analysis of Contaminants in Drinking Water - Appendix 5C

Notice

The information contained on this website is not the official version of the Compilation of the Rules and Regulations of the State of New York (NYCRR). No representation is made as to its accuracy. To ensure accuracy and for evidentiary purposes, reference should be made to the Official Compilation of the Rules and Regulations of the State of New York, available from West Publishing at 1-800-344-5009.

Section

I. Inorganic Chemicals and Physical Characteristics (Table 1 and 2, Subpart 5-1)

A. Laboratory Certification - to receive approval to conduct analyses for Inorganic Chemicals in public drinking water, the laboratory must:

  • (a) Analyze Performance Evaluation samples which include those substances provided by EPA Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory or equivalent samples provided by the State.
  • (b) Achieve quantitative results on the analyses that are within the following acceptance limits:
Contaminant Acceptance Limit
Antimony ±30% at >= 0.006 mg/l
Arsenic ±30% at >=0.003 mg/l
Asbestos 2 standard deviations based on study statistics
Barium ±15% at >= 0.15 mg/l
Beryllium ±15% at >= 0.001 mg/l
Cadmium ±20% at >= 0.002 mg/l
Chromium ±15% at >= 0.01 mg/l
Cyanide ±25% at >= 0.1 mg/l
Fluoride ±10% at >= 1 to 10 mg/l
Mercury ±30% at >= 0.0005 mg/l
Nickel ±15% at >= 0.01 mg/l
Nitrate ±10% at >= 0.4 mg/l
Nitrite ±15% at >= 0.4 mg/l
Selenium ±20% at >= 0.01 mg/l
Thallium ±30% at >= 0.002 mg/l

B. Approved Methods for the analysis of Inorganic Chemicals

Contaminant Methodology1 EPA Methods Reference Method Number
ASTM Methods2 Standard Methods3 Other Methods4
Alkalinity Electrometric Titration       I-1030-856
Titrimetric   D1067-92B 2320B  
Aluminum Atomic Absorption; Direct Aspiration     3111B  
Atomic Absorption; Furnace     3113B  
Atomic Absorption; Platform 200.95      
Inductively-Coupled Plasma 200.75   3120B  
ICP-Mass Spectrometry 200.85      
Ammonia Colorimetric: Automated Phenate 350.17      
Antimony22 Atomic Absorption; Furnace     3113B  
Atomic Absorption; Platform 200.95      
Hydride-Atomic Absorption   D3697-92    
ICP-Mass Spectrometry 200.85      
Arsenic8, 22 Atomic Absorption; Furnace   D2972-93C 3113B  
Atomic Absorption; Platform 200.95      
Hydride-Atomic Absorption   D2972-93B 3114B  
ICP-Mass Spectrometry 200.85      
Inductively-Coupled Plasma 200.75, 23   3120B23  
Asbestos Transmission Electron Microscopy 100.19      
Transmission Electron Microscopy 100.210      
Barium Atomic Absorption; Direct Aspiration   3111D    
Atomic Absorption; Furnace     3113B  
ICP-Mass Spectrometry 200.85      
Inductively-Coupled Plasma 200.75   3120B  
Beryllium Atomic Absorption; Furnace   D3645-93B 3113B  
Atomic Absorption; Platform 200.95      
ICP-Mass Spectrometry 200.85      
Inductively-Coupled Plasma 200.75   3120B  
Bromate Ion Chromatography 300.111      
Bromide Ion Chromatography 300.07      
Ion Chromatography 300.111      
Cadmium Atomic Absorption; Furnace     3113B  
Atomic Absorption; Platform 200.95      
ICP-Mass Spectrometry 200.85      
Inductively-Coupled Plasma 200.75      
Calcium12 Atomic Absorption; Direct Aspiration   D511-93B 3111B  
EDTA Titrimetric   D511-93A 3500-Ca-D  
Inductively-Coupled Plasma 200.75   3120B  
Chloride Ion Chromatography 300.07 D4327-91 4110B  
Potentiometric Method     4500-Cl--D  
Chlorite Amperometric Titration13     4500-ClO2-E14  
Ion Chromatography 300.07      
Ion Chromatography 300.111      
Chromium Atomic Absorption; Furnace     3113B  
Atomic Absorption; Platform 200.95      
ICP-Mass Spectrometry 200.85      
Inductively-Coupled Plasma 200.75   3120B  
Color Visual Comparison Method     2120B  
Conductivity Conductance   D1125-91A 2510B  
Copper12 Atomic Absorption; Direct Aspiration   D1688-90A 3111B  
Atomic Absorption; Furnace   D1688-90C 3113B  
Atomic Absorption; Platform 200.95      
ICP-Mass Spectrometry 200.85      
Inductively-Coupled Plasma 200.75   3120B  
Cyanide Manual Distillation followed by     4500-CN-C  
Spectrophotometric, Amenable   D2036-91B 4500-CN-G  
Spectrophotometric: Manual   D2036-91A 4500-CN-E I-3300-856
Spectrophotometric: Semi-automated 335.47   4500-CN-E  
Selective Electrode     4500-CN-F  
Fluoride Automated Alizarin     4500F-E 129-71W15
Automated Electrode       380-75WE15
Ion Chromatography 300.07 D4327-91 4110B  
Manual Distillation;

Colormetric SPADNS

Manual Electrode

  D1179-93B 4500F-B,D

4500F-C

 
Foaming Agents Surfactants     5540C  
Iron Atomic Absorption; Direct Aspiration     3111B  
Atomic Absorption; Furnace     3113B  
Atomic Absorption; Platform 200.93   3113B  
Inductively-Coupled Plasma 200.73   3120B  
Lead12, 22 Atomic Absorption; Furnace   D3559-90D 3113B  
Atomic Absorption; Platform 200.95      
ICP-Mass Spectrometry 200.85      
Differential Pulse Anodic Stripping Voltammetry       100116
Magnesium Atomic Absorption   D511-93B 3111B  
Inductively Coupled Plasma 200.75   3120B  
Complexation Titrimetric Methods   D511-93A 3500-Mg-E  
Manganese Atomic Absorption; Direct Aspiration     3111B  
Atomic Absorption; Furnace     3113B  
Atomic Absorption; Platform 200.95      
Inductively-Coupled Plasma 200.75   3120B  
ICP-Mass Spectrometry 200.85      
Mercury22 Automated, Cold Vapor 245.217      
Manual, Cold Vapor 245.15 D3223-91 3112B  
ICP-Mass Spectrometry 200.85      
Nickel Atomic Absorption; Direct Aspiration     3111B  
Atomic Absorption; Furnace     3113B  
Atomic Absorption; Platform 200.95      
ICP-Mass Spectrometry 200.85      
Inductively-Coupled Plasma 200.75   3120B  
Nitrate Automated Cadmium Reduction 353.27 D3867-90A 4500-NO3-F  
Ion Chromatography 300.07 D4327-91 4110B B-101118
Ion Selective Electrode     4500-NO3-D 60119
Manual Cadmium Reduction   D3867-90B 4500-NO3-E  
Nitrite Automated Cadmium Reduction 353.27 D3867-90A 4500-NO3-F  
Ion Chromatography 300.07 D4327-91 4110B B-101118
Manual Cadmium Reduction   D3867-90B 4500-NO3-E  
Spectrophotometric     4500-NO2-B  
Odor       2150B  
Orthophosphate 20 Colorimetric, Ascorbic Acid, Single Reagent   D515-88A 4500-P-E  
Colorimetric, Ascorbic Acid, Two Reagent        
Colorimetric, Automated, Ascorbic Acid 365.17   4500-P-F  
Colorimetric, Phosphomolybdate;
Automated Discrete;
Automated-Segmented Flow
      I-1601-856
I-2598-856
I-2601-906
Ion Chromotography 300.07 D4327-91 4110-B  
PH Electrometric 150.117 D1293-84B 4500-H+-B  
Electrometric 150.217      
Selenium22 Atomic Absorption; Furnace   D3859-93B 3113B  
Atomic Absorption; Platform 200.95      
Hydride-Atomic Absorption   D3859-93A 3114B  
ICP-Mass Spectrometry 200.85      
Silica Automated Method for Molybdate-Reactive Silica     4500-Si-F  
Colorimetric   D859-88    
Colorimetric, Molybdate Blue;
Automated-Segmented Flow
      I-1700-856
I-2700-856
Heteropoly Blue     4500-Si-E  
Inductively-Coupled Plasma4 200.75   3120B  
Molybdosilicate     4500-Si-D  
Silver Atomic Absorption; Direct Aspiration     3111B  
Atomic Absorption; Furnace     3113B  
Atomic Absorption; Platform 200.95      
Inductively-Coupled Plasma 200.75   3120B I-3720-8521
ICP-Mass Spectrometry 200.85      
Sodium Atomic Absorption; Direct Aspiration     3111B  
Inductively-Coupled Plasma4 200.75      
Sulfate Automated Chloranilate        
Automated Methylthymol Blue 375.27 D516-90 4500-SO42--F  
Gravimetric     4500-SO42--C,D  
Ion Chromotography 300.07 D4327-91 4110B  
Turbidimetric     4500-SO42--E  
TDS Solids – TDS Dried at 180oC     2540C  
Temperature Thermometric     2550  
Thallium Atomic Absorption; Furnace        
Atomic Absorption; Platform 200.95      
ICP-Mass Spectrometry 200.85      
Zinc Atomic Absorption; Direct Aspiration     3111B  
Inductively-Coupled Plasma 200.75   3120B  
ICP-Mass Spectrometry 200.85      

Information regarding obtaining these documents can be obtained from the Safe Drinking Water Hotline at 800-426-4791. Documents may be inspected at EPA's Drinking Water Docket, 410 M Street, SW., Washington, DC 20460 (Telephone: 202-2603027); or at the Office of Federal Register, 800 North Capitol Street, NW., Suite 700, Washington, DC.

  1. Because MDLs reported in EPA Methods 200.7 and 200.9 were determined using a 2X preconcentration step during sample digestion, MDLs determined when samples are analyzed by direct analysis (i.e., no sample digestion) will be higher. For direct analysis of cadmium and arsenic by Method 200.7, and arsenic by Method 3120 B samples preconcentration using pneumatic nebulization may be required to achieve lower detection limits. Preconcentration may also be required for direct analysis or antimony, lead, and thallium by Method 200.9; antimony and lead by Method 3113 B; and lead by Method D3559-90D unless multiple in-furnace depositions are made.
  2. "Annual Book of ASTM Standards", 1994 and 1996, Vols. 11.01 and 11.02, American Society for Testing and Materials. The previous versions of D1688-95A, D1688-95C (copper), D3559-95D (lead), D1293-95 (pH), D1125-91A (conductivity) and D859-88, respectively are located in the "Annual Book of ASTM Standards", 1994, Vol. 11.01. Copies may be obtained from the American Society of Testing and Materials, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, West Conshohocken, PA 19428.
  3. "18th , and 19th editions of "Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater", 1992 and 1995, respectively, American Public Health Association; any edition may be used. Copies may be obtained from the American Public Health Association, 1015 Fifteenth Street NW, Washington, DC 20005.
  4. "Other" draws reference to other consensus organizations, such as USGS, or private sector company that has developed an approved analytical method.
  5. "Methods for the Determination of Metals in Environmental Samples – Supplement I", EPA-600/R-94/111, May 1994. Available at NTIS, PB95-125472.
  6. Method I-2601-90, "Methods for Analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory - Determination of Inorganic and Organic Constituents in Water and Fluvial Sediments", Open File Report 93-125, 1993; For Methods I-1030-85; I-1601-85; I-1700-85; I-2598-85; I-2700-85; and I-3300-85. See "Techniques of Water Resource Investigation of the U.S. Geological Survey", Book 5, Chapter A-1, 3rd Edition, 1989; Available from Information Services, U.S. Geological Survey, Federal Center, Box 25286, Denver, CO 80225-0425.
  7. "Methods for the Determination of Inorganic Substances in Environmental Samples", EPA-600/R-93/100, August 1993. Available at NTIS, PB94-120821.
  8. If ultrasonic nebulization is used in the determination of arsenic by Methods 200.7, 200.8, or SM 3120B, the arsenic must be in the pentavalent state to provide uniform signal response. For Methods 200.7 and 3120B, both samples and standards must be diluted in the same mixed acid matrix concentration of nitric and hydrochloric acid with the addition of 100 m L of 30% hydrogen peroxide per 100 ml of solution. For direct analysis of arsenic with Method 200.8 using ultrasonic nebulization, samples and standards must contain one mg/L of sodium hypochlorite.
  9. Method 100.1, "Analytical Method for Determination of Asbestos Fibers in Water", EPA-600/4-83-043, September 1983. Available at NTIS, PB83-260471.
  10. Method 100.2, "Determination of Asbestos Structures Over 10 m m in Length in Drinking Water", EPA/600/R-94/134, June 1994. Available at NTIS, PB94-201902.
  11. EPA Method 300.1 is titled "USEPA Method 300.1, Determination of Inorganic Anions in Drinking Water by Ion Chromotography", Revision 1.0, USEPA, 1997, EPA/600R-98/118 (available through NTIS, PB98-169196; also available from: Chemical Exposure Research Branch, Microbiological and Chemical Exposure Assessment Research Division, National Exposure Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH 45268, Fax Number: 513-569-7757. Phone Number: 513-569-7586.
  12. Samples may not be filtered. Samples that contain less than 1 NTU (nephelometric turbidity unit) and are properly preserved (concentrated nitric acid to pH<2) may be analyzed directly (without digestion) for total metals, otherwise, digestion is required. Turbidity must be measured on the preserved samples just prior to the initiation of metal analysis. When digestion is required, the total recoverable technique as defined in the method must be used.
  13. Amperometric titration may be used for routine daily monitoring of chlorite at the entrance to the distribution system. Ion chromatography must be used for routine monthly monitoring of chlorite and additional monitoring of chlorite in the distribution system.
  14. For the analysis of chlorite using SM 4500-ClO2-E , the version contained in the 19th Edition of "Standard Method for the Examination of Water and Wastewater", 1995, must be used.
  15. Industrial Method No. 129-71W, "Fluoride in Water and Wastewater", December 1972, and Method NO. 380-75WE, "Fluoride in Water and Wastewater", February 1976, Technicon Industrial Systems. Copies may be obtained from Bran & Luebbe, 1025 Busch Parkway, Buffalo Grove, IL, 60089.
  16. The description for Method Number 1001 for lead is available from Palintest, LTC, 21 Kenton Lands Road, P.O. Box 18395, Erlanger, KY 41018 or from Hach Company, P.O. Box 389, Loveland, CO 8053.
  17. "Methods for Chemical Analysis of Water and Wastes", EPA-600/4-79/020, March 1983. Available at NTIS, PB-95-125472.
  18. Method B-1011, "Waters Test Method for Determination of Nitrite/Nitrate in Water Using Single Column Ion Chromatography", Millipore Corporation, Waters Chromatography Division, 34 Maple Street, Milford, MA 01757.
  19. The procedure shall be done in accordance with Technical Bulletin 601 "Standard Method of Test for Nitrate in Drinking Water", July 1994, PN 221890-001, Analytical Technology Inc. Copies may be obtained from ATI Orion, 529 Main Street, Boston, MA 02129.
  20. Unfiltered, no digestion or hydrolysis.
  21. Method I-3720-85, "Techniques of Water Resources Investigation of the U. S. Geological Survey", Book 5, Chapter A-1, 3rd Edition, 1989; Available from Information Services, U.S. Geological Survey, Federal Center, Box 25286, Denver, CO 80225-0425.
  22. There are three technologies for which compliance determinations of total metals require an acid digestion of the sample even if the turbidity of the sample is less than 1 NTU. The three technologies and the applicable metals are cold vapor AA (mercury), DPASV (lead), and gaseous hydride AA (antimony, arsenic and selenium).
  23. After January 23, 2006 analytical methods using the ICP-AES technology, may not be used because the detection limits for these methods are 0.008 mg/L or higher. This restriction means that the two ICP-AES methods (EPA Method 200.7 and SM 3120 B) approved for use for the MCL of 0.05 mg/L may not be used for compliance determinations for the revised MCL of 0.01mg/L. However, prior to 2005 systems may have compliance samples analyzed with these less sensitive methods

C. Sample Collection and Preservation Requirements for Inorganic Chemicals

Sample collection for the inorganic chemicals under this section shall be conducted using the sample preservation, container, and maximum holding time procedures specified in the following table:

Parameter Preservative1 Sample Holding Time2 Sample Container Size Type of Container
Alkalinity 4oC 14 days 100 mL Plastic or Glass
Aluminum HNO3 to pH < 2 6 months 1 L Plastic or Glass
Ammonia 4oC, H2SO4 to pH < 2 28 days 100 mL Plastic or Glass
Antimony HNO3 to pH < 2 6 months 1 L Plastic or Glass
Arsenic HNO3 to pH < 2 6 months 1 L Plastic or Glass
Asbestos3 4oC 48 hours 800 mL in duplicate Plastic or Glass
Barium HNO3 to pH < 2 6 months 1 L Plastic or Glass
Beryllium HNO3 to pH < 2 6 months 1 L Plastic or Glass
Bromate 50 mg/L EDA 28 days 100 mL Plastic or Glass
Bromide None 28 days 100 mL Plastic or Glass
Cadmium HNO3 to pH < 2 6 months 1 L Plastic or Glass
Calcium HNO3 to pH < 2 6 months 1 L Plastic or Glass
Chloride None 28 days 50 mL Plastic or Glass
Chlorite 4oC, 50 mg/L EDA 14 days 100 mL Plastic or Glass
Chromium HNO3 to pH < 2 6 months 1 L Plastic or Glass
Color 4oC 48 hours 50 mL Plastic or Glass
Conductivity 4oC 28 days 100 mL Plastic or Glass
Copper HNO3 to pH < 2 6 months 1 L Plastic or Glass
Cyanide 4oC, NaOH to pH >12, Ascorbic Acid4 14 days 1 L Plastic or Glass
Fluoride None 1 month 300 mL Plastic or Glass
Foaming Agents 4oC 48 hours 500 mL Plastic or Glass
Iron HNO3 to pH < 2 6 months 1 L Plastic or Glass
Lead HNO3 to pH < 2 6 months 1 L Plastic or Glass
Magnesium HNO3 to pH < 2 6 months 1 L Plastic or Glass
Manganese HNO3 to pH < 2 6 months 1 L Plastic or Glass
Mercury4 HNO3 to pH < 2 28 days 100 mL Plastic or Glass
Nickel HNO3 to pH < 2 6 months 1 L Plastic or Glass
Nitrate 4oC 48 hours5 100 mL Plastic or Glass
Nitrate-Nitrite6 4oC, H2SO4 to pH < 2 28 days 100 mL Plastic or Glass
Nitrite 4oC 48 hours 50 mL Plastic or Glass
Odor 4oC 24 hours 200 mL Glass
Orthophosphate Filter immediately, 4oC 48 hours 50 mL Plastic or Glass
pH None Immediately 25 mL Plastic or Glass
Selenium HNO3 to pH < 2 6 months 1 L Plastic or Glass
Silica 4oC 28 days 50 mL Plastic
Silver HNO3 to pH < 2 6 months 1 L Plastic or Glass
Sodium HNO3 to pH < 2 6 months 1 L Plastic or Glass
Sulfate 4oC 28 days 50 mL Plastic or Glass
TDS None 7 days 100 mL Plastic or Glass
Temperature None Immediately 1 L Plastic or Glass
Thallium HNO3 to pH < 2 6 months 1 L Plastic or Glass
Zinc HNO3 to pH < 2 6 months 1 L Plastic or Glass
  1. For cyanide determinations, samples must be adjusted with sodium hydroxide to pH > 12 at the time of collection. When chilling is indicated the sample must be shipped and stored at 4oC or less. Acidification of nitrate or metals samples may be with a concentrated acid. Acidification of samples for metals analysis is encouraged and allowed at the laboratory rather than at the time of sampling provided the shipping time and other instructions in Section 8.3 of EPA Methods 200.7 or 200.8 or 200.9 are followed.
  2. In all cases, samples should be analyzed as soon after collection as possible. Follow additional (if any) information on preservation, containers or holding times that is specified in the method.
  3. Instructions for containers, preservation procedures and holding times as specified in Method 100.2 must be adhered to for all compliance analyses including those conducted with Method 100.1.
  4. If the sample container is plastic, the holding time is 14 days.
  5. If the sample is chlorinated, the holding time for an unacidified samples kept at 4oC is extended to 14 days.
  6. Nitrate-Nitrite refers to a measurement of total nitrate.

1. Compositing Requirements

The State may reduce the total number of samples which must be analyzed by allowing the use of compositing. Composite samples from a maximum of five samples are allowed, provided that the detection limit of the method used for analysis is less than one-fifth of the MCL. Compositing of samples must be done in the laboratory.

If the concentration in the composite sample is greater than or equal to one-fifth of the MCL of any inorganic chemical, then a follow-up sample must be taken within 14 days at each sampling point included in the composite. These samples must be analyzed for the contaminants that exceeded one-fifth of the MCL in the composite sample.

D. Detection Limits for Analytical Methods for Selected Inorganic Chemicals

Contaminant Methodology Detection Limit (mg/L)
Antimony Atomic Absorption; Furnace 0.003
Atomic Absorption; Platform 0.00081
Hydride-Atomic Absorption 0.001
ICP-Mass Spectrometry 0.0004
Arsenic Atomic Absorption; Furnace 0.001
Atomic Absorption; Platform 0.00053
Atomic Absorption; Gaseous Hydride 0.001
ICP-Mass Spectrometry 0.00144
Asbestos Transmission Electron Microscopy 0.01 MFL
Barium Atomic Absorption; Direct Aspiration 0.1
Atomic Absorption; Furnace 0.002
ICP-Mass Spectrometry  
Inductively-Coupled Plasma 0.002 (0.001)
Beryllium Atomic Absorption; Furnace 0.0002
Atomic Absorption; Platform 0.000021
ICP-Mass Spectrometry 0.0003
Inductively-Coupled Plasma5 0.0003
Cadmium Atomic Absorption; Furnace 0.0001
Inductively-Coupled Plasma 0.001
Chromium Atomic Absorption; Furnace 0.001
Inductively-Coupled Plasma 0.007 (0.001)
Cyanide Distillation, Spectrophotometric6 0.02
Distillation, Automated, Spectrophotometric6 0.005
Distillation, Selective Electrode6 0.05
Distillation, Amenable, Spectrophotometric7 0.02
Mercury Automated, Cold Vapor 0.0002
Manual, Cold Vapor 0.0002
Nickel Atomic Absorption; Furnace 0.001
Atomic Absorption; Platform 0.00061
ICP-Mass Spectrometry 0.0005
Inductively-Coupled Plasma5 0.005
Nitrate Automated Cadmium Reduction 0.05
Ion Chromatography 0.01
Ion Selective Electrode 1
Manual Cadmium Reduction 0.01
Nitrite Automated Cadmium Reduction 0.05
Ion Chromatography 0.004
Manual Cadmium Reduction 0.01
Spectrophotometric 0.01
Selenium Atomic Absorption; Furnace 0.002
Hydride-Atomic Absorption 0.002
Thallium Atomic Absorption; Furnace 0.001
Atomic Absorption; Platform 0.000071
ICP-Mass Spectrometry 0.0003
  1. Lower MDLs are reported using stabilized temperature graphite furnace atomic absorption.
  2. The value in parentheses "( )" is effective January 23, 2006.
  3. The MDL reported for EPA Method 200.9 (Atomic Absorption; Platform) was determined using a 2X concentration step during sample digestion. The MDL determined for samples analyzed using direct analyses (i.e., no sample digestion) will be higher. Using multiple depositions, EPA 200.9 is capable of obtaining a MDL of 0.0001 mg/L.
  4. Using selective ion monitoring, EPA Method 200.8 (ICP-MS) is capable of obtaining a MDL of 0.0001 mg/L.
  5. Using a 2X preconcentration step as noted in Method 200.7. Lower MDLs may be achieved when using a 4X preconcentration.
  6. Screening method for total cyanides.
  7. Measures "free" cyanides.

E. Lead and Copper

  • (1) Laboratory Certification - to obtain certification to conduct analyses for lead and copper, environmental laboratories must:
    • (a) Analyze performance evaluation samples which include lead and copper provided by EPA Environmental Monitoring and Support Laboratory or equivalent samples provided by the State; and
    • (b) Achieve quantitative acceptance limits as follows:
      • (i) For lead: ± 30 percent of the actual amount in the Performance Evaluation sample when the actual amount is greater than or equal to 0.005 mg/L. The Practical Quantitation Level, or PQL for lead is 0.005 mg/L.
      • (ii) For copper: ± 10 percent of the actual amount in the Performance Evaluation sample when the actual amount is greater than or equal to 0.050 mg/L. The Practical Quantitation Level, or PQL for copper is 0.050 mg/L.
    • (c) Achieve method detection limits as follows:
      • (i) Lead: 0.001 mg/L; and
      • (ii) Copper: 0.001 mg/L or 0.020 mg/L when atomic absorption direct aspiration is used.
    • (d) The State has the authority to allow the use of previously collected monitoring data for purposes of monitoring, if the data were collected and analyzed in accordance with the requirements of this Appendix.
    • (e) All lead and copper levels measured between the PQL and MDL must be either reported as measured or they can be reported as one-half the PQL and MDL specified for lead and copper in subparagraph (b) of paragraph (1) of this section. All levels below the lead and copper MDLs must be reported as zero.

II. Organic Chemicals

A. Principal Organic Contaminants (Table 9D)

  • (1) Laboratory Certification - the analysis of Principal Organic Contaminants (POCs) shall only be conducted by laboratories that have received approval of the State Environmental Laboratory Approval Program (ELAP) according to the following approval conditions:
    • (a) Analyze Performance Evaluation samples which include those substances provided by EPA Environmental and Support Laboratory or proficiency samples provided by the State ELAP system.
    • (b) Achieve the quantitative acceptance limits under the following paragraphs (c) and (d) for at least 80 percent of the regulated organic chemicals listed in II.A.(2).
    • (c) Achieve quantitative results on the analyses performed under (a) above that are within ± 20 percent to the actual amount of the substances in the performance evaluation sample when the actual amount is greater than or equal to 0.010 mg/l.
    • (d) Achieve quantitative results on the analyses performed under paragraph (a) above that are within ± 40 percent of the actual amount of the substances in the performance evaluation sample when the actual amount is less than 0.010 mg/l.
    • (e) Achieve a method detection limit of 0.0005 mg/L.
  • (2) Approved Methods - the analysis of Principal Organic Contaminants and vinyl chloride shall be conducted using the following methods:

    Contaminant CAS No.1 EPA Analytical Method2
    Benzene 71-43-2 502.2, 524.2
    Bromobenzene 108-86-1 502.2, 524.2
    Bromochloromethane 74-97-5 502.2, 524.2
    Bromomethane 74-83-9 502.2, 524.2
    n-Butylbenzene 104-51-8 502.2, 524.2
    sec-Butylbenzene 135-98-8 502.2, 524.2
    tert-Butylbenzene 98-06-6 502.2, 524.2
    Carbon tetrachloride 56-23-5 502.2, 524.2, 551.1
    Chlorobenzene 108-90-7 502.2, 524.2
    Chloroethane 75-00-3 502.2, 524.2
    Chloromethane 74-87-3 502.2, 524.2
    2-Chlorotoluene 95-49-8 502.2, 524.2
    4-Chlorotoluene 106-43-4 502.2, 524.2
    Dibromomethane 74-95-3 502.2, 524.2
    1,2-Dichlorobenzene 95-50-1 502.2, 524.2
    1,3-Dichlorobenzene 541-73-1 502.2, 524.2
    1,4-Dichlorobenzene 106-46-7 502.2, 524.2
    Dichlorodifluoromethane 75-71-8 502.2, 524.2
    1,1-Dichloroethane 75-34-3 502.2, 524.2
    1,2-Dichloroethane 107-06-2 502.2, 524.2
    1,1-Dichloroethene 75-35-4 502.2, 524.2
    cis-1,2-Dichloroethene 156-59-4 502.2, 524.2
    trans-1,2-Dichloroethene 156-60-5 502.2, 524.2
    1,2-Dichloropropane 78-87-5 502.2, 524.2
    1,3-Dichloropropane 142-28-9 502.2, 524.2
    2,2-Dichloropropane 590-20-7 502.2, 524.2
    1,1-Dichloropropene 563-58-6 502.2, 524.2
    cis-1,3-Dichloropropene 10061-01-5 502.2, 524.2
    trans-1,3-Dichloropropene 10061-02-6 502.2, 524.2
    Ethylbenzene 100-41-4 502.2, 524.2
    Hexachlorobutadiene 87-68-3 502.2, 524.2
    Isopropylbenzene 98-82-8 502.2, 524.2
    4-Isopropyltoluene 99-87-6 502.2, 524.2
    Methylene chloride 75-09-2 502.2, 524.2
    n-Propylbenzene 103-65-1 502.2, 524.2
    Styrene 100-42-5 502.2, 524.2
    1,1,1,2-Tetrachloroethane 630-20-6 502.2, 524.2
    1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane 79-34-5 502.2, 524.2
    Tetrachloroethene 127-18-4 502.2, 524.2, 551.1
    Toluene 108-88-3 502.2, 524.2
    1,2,3-Trichlorobenzene 87-61-6 502.2, 524.2
    1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene 120-82-1 502.2, 524.2
    1,1,1-Trichloroethane 71-55-6 502.2, 524.2, 551.1
    1,1,2-Trichloroethane 79-00-5 502.2, 524.2, 551.1
    Trichloroethene 79-01-6 502.2, 524.2, 551.1
    Trichlorofluoromethane 75-69-4 502.2, 524.2
    1,2,3-Trichloropropane 96-18-4 502.2, 524.2
    1,2,4-Trimethylbenzene 95-63-6 502.2, 524.2
    1,3,5-Trimethylbenzene 108-67-8 502.2, 524.2
    Vinyl chloride 75-01-4 502.2, 524.2
    m-Xylene 95-47-6 502.2, 524.2
    o-Xylene 108-38-3 502.2, 524.2
    p-Xylene 106-42-3 502.2, 524.2
    1. CAS No. – Chemical Abstract Service Registry Number
    2. Method Detection Limit – 0.0005 mg/l

B. Pesticides, Dioxin, and PCBs (Table 9C)

  • (1) Laboratory Certification - Analysis for Pesticides, Dioxin, and PCBs shall only be conducted by laboratories that have received approval of the State Environmental Laboratory Approval Program (ELAP) according to the following approval conditions:
    • (a) Analyze Performance Evaluation samples that include those substances provided by EPA Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory or equivalent samples provided by the State.
    • (b) Laboratories must achieve quantitative results within the acceptance limits on 80% of the analytes included in the PT sample. Acceptance is defined as within the 95% confidence interval around the mean of the PT study data.
    • (c) Achieve quantitative results on the analyses that are within the following acceptance limits:

    Contaminant Acceptance Limit
    Alachlor ±45%
    Aldicarb 2 standard deviations
    Aldicarb sulfone 2 standard deviations
    Aldicarb sulfoxide 2 standard deviations
    Atrazine ±45%
    Benzo(a)pyrene 2 standard deviations
    Carbofuran ±45%
    Chlordane ±45%
    2,4-D (as acid salts and esters) ±50%
    Dalapon 2 standard deviations
    Dibromochloropropane ±40%
    Di(2-ethylhexyl)adipate 2 standard deviations
    Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate 2 standard deviations
    Dinoseb 2 standard deviations
    Diquat 2 standard deviations
    Endothall 2 standard deviations
    Endrin ±30%
    Ethylene dibromide (EDB) ±40%
    Glyphosate 2 standard deviations
    Heptachlor ±45%
    Heptachlor epoxide ±45%
    Hexachlorobenzene 2 standard deviations
    Hexachlorocyclopentadiene 2 standard deviations
    Lindane ±45%
    Methoxychlor ±45%
    Oxamyl (Vydate) 2 standard deviations
    PCBs (as Aroclors) (as decachlorobiphenyl) 0 – 200%
    Pentachlorophenol ±50%
    Picloram 2 standard deviations
    Simazine 2 standard deviations
    2,4,5-TP (Silvex) ±50%
    Toxaphene ±45%
    2,3,7,8-TCDD (Dioxin) standard deviations
  •  
  • (2) Approved Methods - the analysis of Pesticides, Dioxin, and PCBs shall be conducted using the following methods:
    Contaminant CAS No.1 Detection Limit (mg/l)2,3 Analytical Method
    Alachlor4 15972-60-8 0.0002 505, 507, 508.1, 525.2, 551.1
    Aldicarb 116-06-3 0.0005 531.1, SM-6610
    Aldicarb sulfone 1646-87-4 0.0008 531.1, SM-6610
    Aldicarb sulfoxide 1646-87-3 0.0005 531.1, SM-6610
    Aldrin 309-00-2 0.075 505, 508, 508.1, 525.2
    Atrazine4 1912-24-9 0.0001 505, 507, 508.1, 525.2, 551.1
    Benzo(a)pyrene 50-32-8 0.00002 525.2, 550, 550.1
    Butachlor 23184-66-9 0.38 507, 525.2
    Carbaryl 63-25-2 2.0 531.1, SM-6610
    Carbofuran 1563-66-2 0.0009 531.1, SM-6610
    Chlordane (Technical) 57-74-9 0.0002 505, 508, 508.1,525.2
    Dalapon 75-99-0 0.001 515.1, 515.3, 552.1, 552.2
    Di(2-ethylhexyl)adipate 103-23-1 0.0006 506, 525.2
    Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate 117-81-7 0.0006 506, 525.2
    Dibromochloropropane (DBCP) 96-12-8 0.00002 504.1, 551.1
    Dicamba 1918-00-9 0.081 515.1, 515.2, 555
    2,4-D (as acid, salts and esters) 94-75-7 0.0001 515.1, 515.2, 515.3, 555, ASTM-D5317-93
    Dieldrin 60-57-1 0.02 505, 508, 508.1, 525.2
    Dinoseb5 88-85-7 0.0002 515.1, 515.2, 515.3 555
    Diquat 2764-72-9 0.0004 549.2
    Endothall 145-73-3 0.009 548.1
    Endrin 72-20-8 0.00001 505, 508, 508.1, 525.2, 551.1
    Ethylene dibromide (EDB) 106-93-4 0.00001 504.1, 551.1
    Glyphosate 1071-83-6 0.006 547, SM-6651
    Heptachlor 76-44-8 0.00004 505, 508, 508.1, 525.2, 551.1
    Heptachlor epoxide 1024-57-3 0.00002 505, 508, 508.1, 525.2, 551.1
    Hexachlorobenzene 118-74-1 0.0001 505, 508, 508.1, 525.2, 551.1
    Hexachlorocyclopentadiene 77-47-4 0.0001 505, 508, 508.1, 525.2, 551.1
    3-Hydroxycarbofuran 16655-82-6 2.0 531.1, SM-6610
    Lindane 58-89-9 0.00002 505, 508, 508.1, 525.2, 551.1
    Methomyl 16752-77-5 0.5 531.1, SM-6610
    Methoxychlor 72-43-5 0.0001 505, 508, 508.1, 525.2, 551.1
    Metolachlor 51218-45-2 0.75 507, 508.1, 525.2
    Metribuzin 21087-64-9 0.75 507, 508.1, 525.2
    Oxamyl (vydate) 23135-22-0 0.002 531.1, SM-6610
    Pentachlorophenol (PCP) 87-86-5 0.00004 515.1, 515.2, 515.3, 525.2, 555, ASTM-D5317-93
    Picloram5 1918-02-1 0.0001 515.1, 515.2, 515.3, 555, ASTM-D5317-93
    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)6 (as decachlorobiphenyl)

    Aroclor 1016

    Aroclor 1221

    Aroclor 1232

    Aroclor 1242

    Aroclor 1248

    Aroclor 1254

    Aroclor 1260

    1336-36-3


    12674-11-2

    11104-28-2

    11141-16-5

    53469-21-9

    12672-29-6

    11097-69-1

    11096-82-5

    0.0001


    0.00008

    0.02

    0.0005

    0.0003

    0.0001

    0.0001

    0.0002

    508A


    505, 508, 508.1, 525.2

    505, 508, 508.1, 525.2

    505, 508, 508.1, 525.2

    505, 508, 508.1, 525.2

    505, 508, 508.1, 525.2

    505, 508, 508.1, 525.2

    505, 508, 508.1, 525.2

    Propachlor 1918-16-7 0.5 508, 508.1, 525.2
    Simazine4 122-34-9 0.0007 5058, 507, 508.1,525.2, 551.1
    (2,4,5-TP) (Silvex)7 93-72-1 0.0002 515.1, 515.2, 515.3, 555, ASTM-D5317-93
    Toxaphene (Technical) 8001-35-2 0.001 505, 508, 508.1, 525.2
    2,3,7,8-TCDD (Dioxin)8,9 1746-01-6 0.000000005 1613
    1. CAS No. – Chemical Abstract Services Registry Number
    2. The EDL or Estimated Detection Limit is given with the EPA Analytical Method cited.
    3. Detection limit as used in this context shall be defined as, greater than or equal to the concentration cited in this table for the individual contaminant.
    4. Substitution of the detector specified in Method 505, 507, 508 or 508.1 for the purpose of achieving lower detection limits is allowed as follows: either an electron capture or nitrogen phosphorous detector may be used provided all regulatory requirements and quality control criteria are met.
    5. Accurate determination of the chlorinated esters requires hydrolysis of the sample as described in EPA Methods 515.1, 515.2 , 515.3 and 555, and ASTM.
    6. If PCBs (as one of seven Aroclors) are detected in any sample analyzed using Methods 505 or 508, the system shall reanalyze the sample using Method 508A to quantitate PCBs (as decachlorobiphenyl). Compliance with the PCB MCL shall be determined based on the quantitative results of analyses using method 508A.
    7. 2-(2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxyl) propionic acid
    8. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin
    9. A nitrogen-phosphorous detector should be substituted for the electron capture detector in Method 505 (or another approved method should be used) to determine alachlor, atrazine and simazine, if lower detection limits are required.
  • (3) Water Sample Compositing Requirements for Pesticides, Dioxin and PCBs

    The State may reduce the total number of samples collected and analyzed in accordance with Table 9C by allowing the use of compositing. Equal size samples from a maximum of five separate sampling points are allowed. The number of samples included in the composite must also be less than the ratio of the Maximum Contaminant Level divided by the detection level for the contaminant as reported by the State certified laboratory. Compositing of samples must be done in the laboratory.

    • (a) If the concentration in the composite sample is greater than or equal to the detection limit of any organic chemicals listed under paragraph (4) of this section, then a separate follow-up sample must be taken within 14 days at each sampling point included in the composite. These samples must be analyzed for the contaminants which were detected in the composite sample.
    • (b) If duplicates or residual portions of the original sample taken from each sampling point used in the composites are available, the system may use these instead of resampling. This additional sample must be analyzed and the results reported to the State within 14 days of collection.
    • (c) In systems serving fewer than 3,300 persons, the State may permit compositing among different systems provided the 5-sample limit is maintained. In systems serving 3,300 or more persons, the State may permit compositing of samples from up to five sampling locations within the system, provided the reporting limit is maintained.

C. Propylene Glycol

  • (1) Approved Methods - Analysis for glycol shall be conducted using the following methods:
    Contaminant CAS No.1 Method Detection Limit (mg/L)2 Analytical Method3
    Total glycol --- 0.05 APC-44
    Propylene glycol

    Ethylene glycol

    57-55-6

    107-21-1

    0.01

    0.01

    Westchester County FID Method

    Westchester County FID Method

    1. CAS No. – Chemical Abstract Services Registry Number
    2. The State certified laboratory must report a detection level equal to or less than those listed in order for the analytical result to be indicative of a contaminant being "not detected.
    3. If glycol is detected by Method APC-44 at 0.1 mg/L or greater, the State will require laboratory verification that the total glycol consists of less than 0.05 mg/L of ethylene glycol using the Westchester County FID method. The Westchester County FID method can distinguish between propylene glycol and ethylene glycol.
  • (2) Analytical Method Number and Reference.

    REFERENCE: Procedure for Method APC-44 – "Tentative Method for the Determination of Ethylene Glycol in Water" – Revision 1/91 may be obtained from the New York State Department of Health's Wadsworth Laboratories and Research – Division of Environmental Sciences, Albany, New York. The telephone number is (518) 474-4170.

    REFERENCE: Procedure for the Westchester County FID Method – "Analyzing Ethylene Glycol and Propylene Glycol in Water Supplies" may be obtained from Westchester County Department of Laboratories and Research Environmental Services, 2 Dana Road, Valhalla, New York, 10595. The telephone number is (914) 595-5575.

D. Methyl-tertiary-butyl-ether (MTBE)

  • (1) Approved Methods - Analysis for MTBE shall be conducted using the following methods:
Contaminant CAS No.1 Method Detection Limit (m g/L)2 Analytical Method
MTBE 1634-04-4 2.5 EPA 502.2 3
MTBE 1634-04-4 2.5 EPA 524.23
  1. CAS No. – Chemical Abstract Services Registry Number
  2. The State certified laboratory must report a detection level equal to or less than those listed in order for the analytical result to be indicative of a contaminant being not detected.
  3. EPA Method 502.2 and 524.2 as set forth in the New York State Environmental Laboratory Approval Program (ELAP) manual, modified on May 15, 2000.

E. Disinfectants, Disinfection Byproduct Precursors, and Disinfection Byproducts (Table 9A/9B in Subpart 5-1)

  • (1) Approved Methods – the analysis of disinfection byproducts and disinfection byproduct precursors shall be conducted using the following methods (for approved methods for bromate, bromide and chlorite, see section I. A. (1) of this appendix):
Parameter Methodology1 Reference Method
Total Trihalomethanes (TTHMs) P&T/GC/EICD & PID EPA method 502.22
P&T/GC/MS EPA Method 524.2
LLE/GC/ECD EPA Method 551.1
Haloacetic Acids (HAA5) LLE/GC/ECD Standard Method 6251 B
SPE/GC/ECD EPA Method 552.1
LLE/GC/ECD EPA Method 552.2
Total Organic Carbon (TOC) High-Temperature Combustion Standard Method 5310 B
Persulfate-Ultraviolet or Heated-Persulfate Oxidation Standard Method 5310 C
Wet-Oxidation Standard Method 5310 D
Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC)3,4 High-Temperature Combustion Standard Method 5310 B
Persulfate-Ultraviolet or Heated-Persulfate Oxidation Standard Method 5310 C
Wet-Oxidation Standard Method 5310 D
UV2543,4 Ultraviolet Absorption Method Standard Method 5910 B
  1. P&T=purge and trap; GC=gas chromatography; EICD=electrolytic conductivity detector; PID=photoionization detector; MS=mass spectrometer; LLE=liquid/liquid extraction; ECD=electron capture detector; SPE= solid phase extractor.
  2. If TTHMs are the only parameter being measured in the sample, then a PID is not required.
  3. DOC and UV254 values are used to calculate Specific Ultraviolet Absorbance (SUVA). SUVA is equal to the UV254 divided by the DOC concentration. SUVA must be measured on water before the addition of disinfectants or oxidants to the system. DOC and UV254 samples used to determine a SUVA value must be taken at the same time and at the same location.
  4. Prior to analysis, DOC and UV254 samples must be filtered through a 0.45 m m pore-diameter filter. Water passed through the 0.45 m m pore-diameter filter prior to filtration of the sample must serve as the filtered blank.

F. Sample Preservation and Holding Time Requirements

Method Preservative Sample Holding Time Extract Holding Time Suggested Sample Size Type of Container
502.2 Sodium Thiosulfate or Ascorbic Acid, 4°C, HCl pH<2 14 days   40-120 mL Glass with PFTE lined septum
504.1 Sodium Thiosulfate Cool, 4°C 14 days 4°C, 24 hours 40 mL Glass with PFTE lined septum
505 Sodium Thiosulfate Cool, 4°C 14 days (7 days for Heptachlor) °4C, 24 hours 40 mL Glass with PFTE lined septum
506 Sodium Thiosulfate Cool, 4°C, Dark 14 days 4°C, dark 14 days 1 L Amber Glass with PFTE lined cap
507 Sodium Thiosulfate Cool, 4°C, Dark 14 days (see method for exceptions) 4°C, dark 14 days 1 L Amber Glass with PFTE lined cap
508 Sodium Thiosulfate Cool, 4°C, Dark 7 days (see method for exceptions) 4°C, dark 14 days 1 L Glass with PFTE lined cap
508A Cool, 4°C 14 days 30 days 1 L Glass with PFTE lined cap
508.1 Sodium Sulfite, HCl pH<2 Cool, 4°C 14 days (see method for exceptions) 30 days 1 L Glass with PFTE lined cap
515.1 Sodium Thiosulfate Cool, 4°C, Dark 14 days 4°C, dark 28 days 1 L Amber Glass with PFTE lined cap
515.2 Sodium Thiosulfate, HCl pH<2 Cool,4°C,Dark 14 days less than of equal to 4°C, dark, 14 days 1 L Amber Glass with PFTE lined cap
524.2 Ascorbic Acid, HCl pH<2, Cool 4°C 14 days   40-120 mL Glass with PFTE lined septum
525.2 Sodium Sulfite, Dark, Cool 4°C, HCl pH<2 14 days (see method for exceptions) 30 days from collection 1 L Amber Glass with PFTE lined cap
531.1, 6610 Sodium Thiosulfate, monochloroacetic acid, pH<3, Cool 4°C Cool 4C 28 days   60 mL Glass with PFTE lined Septum
547 Sodium Thiosulfate Cool, 4°C 14 days (18 months frozen)   60 mL Glass with PFTE lined septum
548.1 Sodium Thiosulfate (HCl pH 1.5-2 if high biological activity) Cool 4°C, Dark 7 days 14 days less than or equal to 4°C greater than or equal to 250 mL Amber Glass with PFTE lined septum
549.1 Sodium Thiosulfate, (H2SO4 pH<2 if biologically active) Cool 4°C, Dark 7 days 21 days greater than or equal to 250 mL High Density Amber Plastic or Silanized Amber Glass
550, 550.1 Sodium Thiosulfate, Cool 4°C, HCl pH<2 7 days 550 – 30 days 550.1 – 40 days Dark, 4°C 1 L Amber Glass with PFTE lined cap
551 Sodium Thiosulfate, Sodium Sulfite, Ammonium Chloride, or Ascorbic Acid, HCl pH 4.5-5.0 Cool 4°C 14 days   greater than or equal to 40 mL Glass with PFTE lined septum
555 Sodium Sulfite HCl, pH less than or equal to 2, Dark, Cool 4°C 14 days   greater than or equal to 100 mL Glass with PFTE lined cap
1613B Sodium Thiosulfate Cool 0-4°C, Dark   Recommended 40 days 1 L Amber Glass with PFTE lined cap

* PTFE – polytetrafluoroethylene (teflon)

G. Method References

Procedures for analysis of trihalomethanes and haloacetic acids using Methods 502.2, 524.2, 551.1, and 552.2 may be found in "Methods for the Determination of Organic Compounds in Drinking Water – Supplement III", EPA/600/R-95/131, August 1995.

Procedures for Methods 502.2, 505, 507, 508, 508A, 515.1, and 531.1 may be found in "Methods for the Determination of Organic Compounds in Drinking Water", EPA-600/4-88-039, December 1988, Revised, July 1991.

Procedures for Methods 506, 547, 550, 550.1, and 551.1 may be found in "Methods for the Determination of Organic Compounds in Drinking Water – Supplement I", EPA/600-4-90-020, July 1990.

Procedures for Methods 515.2, 524.2, 548.1, 552.1, 552.2 and 555 may be found in "Methods for the Determination of Organic Compounds in Drinking Water – Supplement II", EPA/600/R-92/129, August 1992.

Method 1613 is titled, "Tetra-Through Octa-chlorinated Dioxins and Furans by Isotope Dilution HRGC/HRMS", EPA 821-B-94-005, October 1994.

These documents are available from the National Technical Information Service (NTIS) PB91-231480, PB91-146027, PB92-207703 and PB95-104774, U.S. Department of Commerce, 5285 Port Royal Road, Springfield, Virginia 22161. The toll-free number is 800-553-6847.

EPA Methods 504.1, 508.1 and 525.2 are available from US EPA EMSL-Cincinnati, OH 45268. The phone number is (513)-569-7586.

Procedure for Method 6651 may be found in "Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater", 18th Edition, American Public Health Association, American Water Works Association, Water Environment Federation, 1992.

Procedure for Method 6610 may be found in "Supplement to the 18th Edition of Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater", 1994, American Public Health Association, 1015 Fifteenth Street NW, Washington, DC 20005.

Procedures for Methods 5310B, 5310C, and 5310D may be found in "Supplement to the 19th Edition of Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater", American Public Health Association, 1996.

Procedure for Method 5910B may be found in "Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, 19th Edition", American Public Health Association, 1995.

ASTM Method D5317-93 can be obtained from the "Annual Book of ASTM Standards", 1994 and 1996, Vol. 11.01 and 11.02, American Society for Testing and Materials, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, West Conshohocken, PA 19428.

III. Radionuclides (Table 7 in Subpart 5-1)

A. Laboratory Certification – the analysis of Radionuclides shall only be conducted by laboratories that have received approval of the State Environmental Laboratory Approval Program (ELAP) according to the following approval conditions:

  • (a) Analyze Performance Evaluation samples that include those substances provided by EPA Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory or equivalent samples provided by the State.
  • (b) Laboratories must achieve quantitative results within the acceptance limits on 80% of the analytes included in the PT sample. Acceptance is defined as within the 95% confidence interval around the mean of the PT study data.
  • (c) Achieve quantitative results on the analyses that are within the following acceptance limits:
    Contaminant Acceptance Limit
    Gross alpha ±50%
    Gross beta ±30%
    Cesium-134 ±30%
    Iodine-131 ±30%
    Strontium-89, 90 ±30%
    Tritium ±20%
    Gamma emitters  
    Radium-226 ±30%
    Radium-228 ±50%
    Uranium ±30%
  • (d) Achieve the following detection limits:
    Contaminant Detection Limit (pCi/L)
    Gross alpha 3
    Gross beta 4
    Radium-226 1
    Radium-228 1
    Cesium-134 10
    Strontium-89 10
    Strontium-90 2
    Iodine-131 1
    Tritium 1,000
    Other Radionuclides and Photon/Gamma Emitters 1/10th of the MCL

B. Approved Methods – the analysis of Radionuclides shall be conducted using the following methods:

Contaminant Methodology Reference (method or page number)
EPA1
Methods
EPA2
Methods
EPA3
Methods
EPA4
Methods
Standard Methods5 ASTM
Methods6
USGS
Methods7
DOE
Methods8
Other
Methods
Naturally occurring
Gross alpha11 and beta Evaporation 900.0 p. 1 00-01 p. 1 302, 7110 B   R-1120-76    
Gross alpha11 Co-precipitation     00-02   7110 C        
Radium-226 Radon emanation 903.1 p. 16 Ra-04 p. 19 7500-Ra C D 3454-91 R-1141-76 Ra-05 N.Y.9
Radiochemical 903.0 p. 13 Ra-03   304, 305, 7500-Ra B D 2460-90 R-1140-76      
Radium-228 Radiochemical 904.0 p. 24 Ra-05 p. 19 304, 7500-Ra D   R-1142-76   N.Y.9
N. J.10
Uranium12 Radiochemical 908.0       7500-U B        
Fluorometric 908.1       7500-U C (17th Ed.) D 2907-91 R-1180-76,

R-1181-76

U-04    
Alpha spectrometry     00-07 p. 33 7500-U C (18th or 19th Ed.) D 3972-90 R-1182-76 U-02    
Laser Phosphorimetry           D 5174-91        
Man-made
Cesium-134 Radiochemical 901.0 p. 4     7500-Cs B D-2459-72 R-1111-76    
Gamma ray spectrometry 901.1     p. 92 7120 (19th Ed.) D 3649-91 R-1110-76 4.5.2.3    
Iodine-131 Radiochemical 902.0 p. 6
p. 9
    7500-1 B
7500-1 C
7500-1 D
D 3649-91      
Gamma ray spectrometry 901.1     p. 92 7120 (19th Ed.) D 4785-88   4.5.2.3  
Strontium-89, 90 Radiochemical 905.0 p. 29 Sr-4 p. 65 303, 7500-Sr B   R-1160-76 Sr-01
Sr-02
 
Tritium Liquid scintillation 906.0 p. 34 H-2 p. 87 306, 7500-3H B D 4107-91 R-1171-76    
Gamma emitters Gamma ray spectrometry 901.1
902.0
901.0
    p. 92 7120 (19th Ed.),
7500-Cs B,
7500-I B
D 3649-91
D 4785-88
R-1110-76 4.5.2.3  
  1. "Prescribed Procedures for Measurement of Radioactivity in Drinking Water", EPA 600/4-80-032, August 1980. Available at U.S. Department of Commerce, National Technical Information Service (NTIS), 5285 Port Royal Road, Springfield, VA 22161 (Telephone 800-553-6847), PB 80-224744.
  2. "Interim Radiochemical Methodology for Drinking Water", EPA 600/4-75-008(revised), March 1976. Available at NTIS, ibid. PB 253258.
  3. "Radiochemistry Procedures Manual", EPA 520/5-84-006, December 1987. Available at NTIS, ibid. PB 84 - 215581.
  4. "Radiochemical Analytical Procedures for Analysis of Environmental Samples", March 1979. Available at NTIS, ibid. EMSL LV 053917.
  5. "Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater", 13th, 17th, 18th, 19th Editions, 1971, 1989, 1992, 1995. Available at American Public Health Association, 1015 Fifteenth Street N.W., Washington, D.C. 20005. All methods are in the 17th, 18th and 19th editions except 7500-U C Fluorometric Uranium was discontinued after the 17th Edition, 7120 Gamma Emitters is only in the 19th Edition, and 302, 303, 304, 305 and 306 are only in the 13th Edition.
  6. "Annual Book of ASTM Standards", Vol. 11.02, 1994; any year containing the cited version of the method may be used. Copies may be obtained from the American Society for Testing and Materials, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, West Conshohocken, PA 19428.
  7. "Methods for Determination of Radioactive Substances in Water and Fluvial Sediments", Chapter A5 in Book 5 of "Techniques of Water-Resources Investigations of the United States Geological Survey", 1977. Available at U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Information Services, Box 25286, Federal Center, Denver, CO 80225-0425.
  8. "EML Procedures Manual", 27th Edition, Volume 1, 1990. Available at the Environmental Measurements Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), 376 Hudson Street, New York, NY 10014-3621.
  9. "Determination of Ra-226 and Ra-228 (Ra-02)", January 1980, Revised June 1982. Available at Radiological Sciences Institute Center for Laboratories and Research, New York State Department of Health, Empire State Plaza, Albany, NY 12201.
  10. "Determination of Radium 228 in Drinking Water", August 1980. Available at State of New Jersey, Department of Environmental Protection, Division of Environmental Quality, Bureau of Radiation and Inorganic Analytical Services, 9 Ewing Street, Trenton, NJ 08625.
  11. Natural uranium and thorium-230 are approved as gross alpha-particle activity calibration standards for gross alpha co-precipitation and evaporation methods; americium-241 is approved for use with the gross alpha co-precipitation methods.12 If uranium (U) is determined by mass-type methods (i.e., fluorometric or laser phosphorimetry), a 0.67 pCi/µg of uranium conversion factor must be used. This conversion factor is conservative and is based on the 1:1 activity ratio of U-234 to U-238 that is characteristic of naturally-occurring uranium in rock.

C. Sample Collection, Preservation and Instrumentation Requirements

Sample collection for Radionuclides shall be conducted using the sample preservation, container, and maximum holding time procedures specified in the following table:

Parameter Preservative1 Sample
Holding Time2
Type of Container Instrumentation3
Gross alpha Conc. HCl or HNO3 to pH <24 6 months Plastic or Glass A, B, or G
Gross beta Conc. HCl or HNO3 to pH <24 6 months Plastic or Glass A or G
Strontium-89 Conc. HCl or HNO3 to pH <24 6 months Plastic or Glass A or G
Strontium-90 Conc. HCl or HNO3 to pH <24 6 months Plastic or Glass A or G
Radium-226 Conc. HCl or HNO3 to pH <24 6 months Plastic or Glass A,B,D or G
Radium-228 Conc. HCl or HNO3 to pH <24 6 months Plastic or Glass A or G
Cesium-134 Conc. HCl to pH <24 6 months Plastic or Glass A, C or G
Iodine-131 None 8 days Plastic or Glass A, C or G
Tritium None 6 months Glass E
Uranium Conc. HCl or HNO3 to pH <24 6 months Plastic or Glass F
Photon emitters Conc. HCl or HNO3 to pH <24 6 months Plastic or Glass C
  1. It is recommended that the preservative be added to the sample at the time of collection unless suspended solids activity is to be measured. It is also recommended that samples be filtered, if suspended or settleable solids are present, prior to adding preservative, at the time of collection. However, if the sample has to be shipped to a laboratory or storage area, acidification of the sample (in its original container) may be delayed for a period not to exceed 5 days. A minimum of 16 hours must elapse between acidification and analysis.
  2. Holding time is defined as the period from time of sampling to time of analysis. In all cases, samples should be analyzed as soon after collection as possible. If a composite sample is prepared, a holding time cannot exceed 12 months.
  3. A = Low background proportional system; B = Alpha and beta scintillation system; C = Gamma spectrometer [Ge(Hp) or Ge(Li)]; D = Scintillation cell system; E = Liquid scintillation system; F = Fluorometer; G = Low background alpha and beta counting system other than gas-flow proportional.
  4. If HCl is used to acidify samples which are to be analyzed for gross alpha or gross beta activities, the acid salts must be converted to nitrate salts before transfer of the samples to planchets.

IV. Microbiological Contaminants (Tables 6, 11, 11A and 11B)

A. Laboratory Certification

Measurement of total coliforms, fecal coliforms, E.Coli., enterococci, coliphage and heterotrophic plate count (HPC) must be conducted by a laboratory certified by the Department's Environmental Laboratory Approval Program (ELAP) for the method used.

B. Approved Methods

The following analytical methods are acceptable for measurement of microbiological contaminants:

Approved Methods1,2 Media Reference Method3,4
Total Coliforms5
Fermentation broth method6,7,8  LTB BGLB Broth SM 9221B
P-A Broth BGLB Broth8,10 SM 9221D
Enzyme substrate method Colilert, Colilert-1811 SM 9223
Colisure12,13 SM 9223
E*colite Test14  
Membrane filter method mEndo or LES-Endo SM 9222B
MI Agar9  
m-ColiBlue 2415  
Fecal Coliforms5
Fermentation broth method EC broth SM 9221E
A-1 broth17 SM 9221E
Membrane filter method MFC SM 9222D
Escherichia coli
Enzyme substrate method Colilert or Colilert-18 SM 9223
Colisure12,13 SM 9223
E*Colite14  
LTB or P/A broth EC-MUG16 SM 9221F16
Membrane filter method MI Medium9  
m-ColiBlue2415  
mEndo or LES Endo16 then NA-MUG16 SM 9222G16
Heterotrophic Bacteria5
Pour plate method   SM 9215B
Enterococci
  Multiple Tube Technique 9230B18
  Membrane Filter Technique EPA Method 160019
  Enterolert20  
Coliphage
  Two-Step Enrichment Presence-Absence Procedure EPA Method 160121
  Single Agar Layer Procedure EPA Method 160222
  1. It is strongly recommended that laboratories evaluate the false-positive and negative rates for the method(s) they use for monitoring total coliforms. Laboratories are also encouraged to establish false-positive rates within their own laboratory and sample matrix (drinking water or source water) with the intent that if the method they choose has an unacceptable false-positive or negative rate, another method can be used. When one of the approved methods does not include confirmatory samples, it is recommended that confirmatory analysis is performed on a minimum of 5% of all total coliform-positive samples. Methods for establishing rates of false-positive and negative may be established based on: lactose fermentation; the rapid test for b-galactosidase and cytochrome oxidase; multi-test identification systems; or equivalent confirmation tests. False-positive and false negative information is often available in published studies and/or from the manufacturer(s).
  2. Preparation of EC medium is described in Method 9221 E (paragraph 1a) and preparation of Nutrient Agar is described in Method 9221 B (paragraph 3). Both methods are in "Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater", 20th Edition, 1998, and 21st Edition, 2005; either edition may be used.
  3. SM = "Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater", 20th Edition, 1998, or 21st Edition, 2005, American Public Health Association, 1015 Fifteenth Street NW, Washington, D.C. 2005; either edition may be used.
  4. Methods 9221 A, B; 9222 A, B, C; 9221 D and 9223 are contained in "Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater", 20th Edition, 1998, or 21st Edition, 2005, American Public Health Association, 1015 Fifteenth Street NW, Washington, D.C. 2005; either edition may be used.
  5. The time from sample collection of a drinking water sample to initiation of total coliform analysis may not exceed 30 hours. The time from sample collection of a drinking water sample to initiation of heterotrophic bacteria analysis may not exceed 8 hours. Raw water samples may not exceed 8 hours. Systems are encouraged, but not required to hold samples below 10oC during transit.
  6. Lactose broth, as commercially available, may be used in lieu of lauryl tryptose broth, if the system conducts at least 25 parallel tests between this medium and lauryl tryptose broth using the water normally tested, and this comparison demonstrates that the false-positive rate for total coliforms, using lactose broth, is less than 10 percent.
  7. If inverted tubes are used to detect gas production, the media should cover these tubes at least one-half to two-thirds after the sample is added.
  8. No requirement exists to run the completed phase on 10 percent of all total coliform-positive confirmed tubes.
  9. Preparation and use of MI agar is set forth in the article, "New medium for the simultaneous detection of total coliform and Escherichia coli in water" by Brenner K.P., et al., 1993, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 59:3534-3544. Also available from the Office of Water Resources Center (RC-4100), 1200 Pennsylvania Avenue, SW, Washington, D.C. 20460, EPA 600/J-99/225.
  10. Six-times formulation strength may be used if the medium is filter-sterilized rather than autoclaved.
  11. The Chromogenic Substrate Coliform Test or ONPG-MUG Test is also known as the Autoanalysis Colilert System.
  12. A description of the Colisure Test, Feb. 28, 1994, may be obtained from the IDEXX Laboratories, Inc., One IDEXX Drive, Westbrook, Maine 04092.
  13. The Colisure test may be read after an incubation time of 24 hours.
  14. A description of the E*Colite® Test, "Presence/Absence for Coliforms and E. coli in Water", Dec. 21, 1997, is available from Charm Sciences, Inc., 659 Andover St., Lawrence, MA 01843–1032 or from EPA's Water Resource Center (RC–4100T), 1200 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW., Washington, DC 20460.
  15. A description of the m-ColiBlue24® Test, ''Total Coliforms and E. coli Membrane Filtration Method with m-ColiBlue24 Broth,'' Method No. 10029 Revision 2, Aug. 17, 1999, is available from Hach Company, 100 Dayton Avenue, Ames, IA 50010 or from EPA's Water Resource Center (RC–4100T), 1200 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20460.
  16. EC–MUG (Method 9221F) or NA–MUG (Method 9222G) can be used for E. coli testing step as described in § 141.21(f)(6)(i) or (ii) after use of Standard Methods 9221 B, 9221 D, (for 9221F) or 9222 B, or 9222 C (for 9222G).
  17. A-1 Broth may be held up to 3 months in a tightly closed screwcap tube at 4oC.
  18. Methods are described in Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater 20th edition, 1998 or 21st edition, 2005; copies may be obtained from the American Public Health Association, 1015 Fifteenth Street, NW., Washington, DC 20005–2605.
  19. EPA Method 1600: Enterococci in Water by Membrane Filtration Using membrane-Enterococcus Indoxyl–b–D–Glucoside Agar (mEI) EPA 821–R–02–022 (September 2002) is an approved variation of Standard Method 9230C. The method is available at http://www.epa.gov/nerlcwww/ 1600sp02.pdf or from EPA's Water Resource Center (RC–4100T), 1200 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20460. The holding time and temperature for ground water samples are specified in footnote 2 above, rather than as specified in Section 8 of EPA Method 1600.
  20. Medium is available through IDEXX Laboratories, Inc., One IDEXX Drive, Westbrook, Maine 04092. Preparation and use of the medium is set forth in the article ''Evaluation of Enterolert for Enumeration of Enterococci in Recreational Waters,'' by Budnick, G.E., Howard, R.T., and Mayo, D.R., 1996, Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 62:3881–3884.
  21. EPA Method 1601: Male-specific (F+) and Somatic Coliphage in Water by Two-step Enrichment Procedure; April 2001, EPA 821–R–01–030. Method is available at http://www.epa.gov/nerlcwww/1601ap01.pdf or from EPA's Water Resource Center (RC–4100T), 1200 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW., Washington, DC 20460.
  22. EPA Method 1602: Male-specific (F+) and Somatic Coliphage in Water by Single Agar Layer (SAL) Procedure; April 2001, EPA 821–R–01– 029. Method is available at http://www.epa.gov/nerlcwww/1602ap01.pdf or from EPA's Water Resource Center (RC–4100T), 1200 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW., Washington, DC 20460.

V. Turbidity (Table 4)

(A) Approved Methods

Turbidity shall be conducted using the following methods:

Parameter Methodology Reference Methods1
Turbidity Nephelometric Method 2130 B
Nephelometric method 180.12
Great Lakes Instruments Method 23
  1. "Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater", 18th Edition, 1992, and 19th Edition, 1995, American Public Health Association, American Water Works Association, Water Environment Federation.
  2. "Methods for the Determination of Inorganic Substances in Environmental Samples", EPA-600/R-93-100, August 1993. Available at NTIS, PB94-121811.
  3. GLI Method 2, "Turbidity" November 2, 1992 Great Lakes Instruments, Inc., 8855 North 55th Street, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53223.

VI. Residual Disinfectants

(A) Approved Methods

Approved Methods – The analysis of residual disinfectants shall be conducted using one of the following analytical methods:

Disinfectant Reference Methodology Reference Methods1
Free and Combined Chlorine2 Amperometric Titration Method 4500-C1 D
Low Level Amperometric Titration 4500-C1 E
DPD Ferrous Titrimetric Method 4500-C1 F
DPD Colorimetric Method3 4500-C1 G
Syringaldazine (FACTS) Method 4500-C1 H
Ozone Indigo Colorimetric Method 4500-O3 B
Chlorine Dioxide DPD Method 4500-C1O2 D
  Amperometric Method II 4500-C1O2 E
  1. "Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater", 20th Edition, 1998, or 21st Edition, 2005, American Public Health Association, 1015 Fifteenth Street NW, Washington, D.C. 2005; either edition may be used.
  2. Free and total chlorine residuals may be measured continuously by adapting a specified chlorine residual method for use with a continuous monitoring instrument provided the chemistry, accuracy, and precision of the measurement remain the same. Instruments used for continuous monitoring must be calibrated with a grab sample measurement at least every 5 days, or with a protocol approved by the State.
  3. The Hach Company Method No. 8167 (Version no. 1, dated April 24, 1995) as found in Hach Method 8021 in the "Water Quality Analysis Handbook", 3rd edition, by Hach Company, Loveland, Colorado, 1997, pg. 335, for determining total chlorine is an acceptable version of the spectrophotometric, DPD, Standard Method 4500-C1-G in "Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater", 20th Edition, 1998, or 21st Edition 2005; either edition may be used.

VII. General References

More information about the regulations pertaining to the parameters listed in this appendix can be found in 40CFR parts 141.23, 141.24, National Primary and Secondary Drinking Water Regulations.

Copies of documents referenced in this appendix may be obtained from the National Technical Information Services, U.S. Department of Commerce, 5285 Pont Royal Road, Springfield, Virginia 22161 or online at: http://www.ntis.gov/.

Copies of cited references are available for review and inspection from Records Access Officer, Department of Health, Corning Tower, Room 2364, Albany, New York 12237-0044 and New York State Department of State, Office of Information Services,99 Washington Ave., Albany, New York 12231.

Copies of "Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater", 21st Edition, 2005, American Public Health Association, 1015 Fifteenth Street NW, Washington, D.C. 2005, are available for review and inspection from the Department of Health, Bureau of Water Supply Protection, 547 River Street, Room 400, Troy, NY 12180.

U.S. EPA. "Technical Notes on Drinking Water Methods", Office of Research and

Development, Washington, DC 20460. EPA/600/R-94/173, October 1994 (EPA, 1994).

Copies of EPA analytical methods may be obtained online at http://water.epa.gov/scitech/drinkingwater/labcert/analyticalmethods_ogwdw.cfm,

by contacting EPA's Safe Drinking Water Hotline at 1-800-426-4791, or by contacting the EPA using one of the contact options listed at http://water.epa.gov/drink/contact.cfm