Appendix D: Tests of General Development for Young Children

Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ)

Type of Test Set of 11 developmental questionnaires periodically sent to parents of children who show potential developmental problems between 4 and 48 months.
Purpose To identify children as needing further testing and possible referral to early intervention services.
Age Range 4 months to 48 months old
Test Components Areas screened include gross motor, fine motor, communication, personal-social, and problem-solving. There are 3 versions.
Testing and Scoring Procedures The ASQ was designed to be used by parents having a variety of income and educational levels.
Time for Administering Test Not specified
Standardization/Norms The test was standardized on a sample of 2,008 children (who were 53% male; the occupational and ethnic status of families were diverse). Children with disabilities and those at environmental or medical risk were included in this sample. Reliability and validity is included in the manual.
Examiner Training/ Qualifications Not specified
Non-English Versions Spanish

Bayley Scales of Infant Development II
(BSID-II) Second edition 1993

Type of Test A standardized assessment of infant development.
Purpose The test is intended to measure a child's level of development in three domains, cognitive, motor and behavioral.
Age Range One month to 42 months old
Test Components The BSID-II consists of three scales: mental, motor and behavior rating scales. The test contains items designed to identify young children at risk for developmental delay.
Testing and Scoring Procedures The examiner presents test materials to the child and observes the child's responses and behaviors. Performance results can be expressed as a developmental age or developmental quotient.
Time for Administering Test The administration time ranges from 30 minutes to 60 minutes.
Standardization/Norms BSID normative data reflects the U.S. population in terms of race/ethnicity, infant gender, education level of parents and demographic location of the infant. The Bayley was standardized on 1,700 infants, toddlers, and preschoolers between 1 and 42 months of age. Norms were established using samples that did not include disabled, premature, and other at-risk children. Corrected scores may be used for these higher risk groups, but their use is controversial.
Examiner Training/ Qualifications It is recommended that the test be administered and scored by appropriately trained clinical or school psychologists.

Gesell Developmental Schedules

Type of Test A standardized test of a child's general development
Purpose Intended to assess a child's general development.
Age Range 0-72 months old. Use age equivalents over 72 months old
Test Components Test components include: language, fine and gross motor, cognitive, and personal-social domains.
Testing and Scoring Procedures Results can be expressed as developmental age or DQ.
Time for Administering Test Not specified
Standardization /Norms Has a normative reference group and assesses 350-400 behaviors from birth to 72 months of age.
Examiner Training/Qualifications Not specified

Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales

Type of Test Assesses personal and social sufficiency of people from birth to adulthood
Purpose To assess communication, daily living skills, socialization and motor skills domains
Age Range Newborn to adult
Test Components Three forms are available: the Interview Edition Survey, the Expanded Form, and the Classroom Edition.
Testing and Scoring Procedures A respondent (either a parent, a teacher, or another professional) who knows the individual well answers behavior-oriented questions about the individual's adaptive behavior. Results can be expressed as a standard score, percentiles, or age equivalents in each domain, as well as in the form of an Adaptive Behavior Composite.
Time for Administering Test Approximately 90 minutes
Standardization / Norms The Interview Edition Survey and Expanded Form were standardized on 3,000 individuals from birth through 18 years old. Separate norms are available for children with mental retardation, emotional disorders, and physical handicaps. An additional 3,000 children ranging in age from 3 to 12 years served as the normative group for the Classroom Edition.
Examiner Training/ Qualifications The examiner needs some level of supervised training, as the Vineland involves asking open-ended questions.