Real-Time Continuous Glucose Monitors

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Real–Time Continuous Glucose Monitors

A continuous glucose monitor (CGM) is a small wearable glucose monitoring device that continuously measures and tracks a person's glucose levels for the management of diabetes. A CGM is designed to supplement finger stick blood glucose testing for diabetes treatment decisions. A CGM may aid in the detection of episodes of hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia by using alarms and/or alerts to inform patients when blood glucose levels are exceeding or falling below specified thresholds.

The New York State Department of Health will make a determination whether or not to add coverage of this technology to the Medicaid benefit package.

Dossier sources of evidence already submitted:

The following evidence was recently submitted to the Department:

  1. Battelino T, Phillip M, Bratina N, et al. Effect of continuous glucose monitoring on hypoglycemia in type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2011;34:795–800.
  2. Battelino T, Conget I, Olsen B, et al. The use and efficacy of continuous glucose monitoring in type 1 diabetes treated with insulin pump therapy: a randomised controlled trial. Diabetologia. 2012;55:3155–3162.
  3. Battelino T, Liabat S, Veeze HJ, et al. Routine use of continuous glucose monitoring in 10 501 people with diabetes mellitus. Diabet Med. 2015;32:1568–1574.
  4. Beck RW, Hirsch IB, Laffel L, et al. The effect of continuous glucose monitoring in well–controlled type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2009;32:1378–1383.
  5. Bode B, Beck RW, Xing D, et al. Sustained benefit of continuous glucose monitoring on HbA1c, glucose profiles, and hypoglycemia in adults with type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2009;32:2047–2049.
  6. Bronstone A, Graham C. The potential cost implications of averting severe hypoglycemic events requiring hospitalization in high–risk adults with type 1 diabetes using real–time continuous glucose monitoring J Diabetes Sci Technol. 2016.
  7. Chase HP, Beck RW, Xing D, et al. Continuous glucose monitoring in youth with type 1 diabetes: 12–month follow–up of the Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation continuous glucose monitoring randomized trial. Diabetes Technol Ther. 2010;12:507–515.
  8. Deiss D, Bolinder J, Riveline JP, et al. Improved glycemic control in poorly controlled patients with type 1 diabetes using real–time continuous glucose monitoring. Diabetes Care. 2006;29:2730–2732.
  9. Hirsch IB, Abelseth J, Bode BW, et al. Sensor–augmented insulin pump therapy: results of the first randomized treat–to–target study. Diabetes Technol Ther. 2008;10:377–383.
  10. Huang ES, O'Grady M, Basu A, et al. The cost–effectiveness of continuous glucose monitoring in type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2010;33:1269–1274.
  11. Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation Continuous Glucose Monitoring Study Group. Effectiveness of continuous glucose monitoring in a clinical care environment: evidence from the Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation continuous glucose monitoring (JDRF–CGM) trial. Diabetes Care. 2010;33:17–22.
  12. Kordonouri O, Pankowska E, Rami B, et al. Sensor–augmented pump therapy from the diagnosis of childhood type 1 diabetes: results of the Paediatric Onset Study (ONSET) after 12 months of treatment. Diabetologia. 2010;53:2487–2495.
  13. Mauras N, Beck R, Xing D, et al. A randomized clinical trial to assess the efficacy and safety of real–time continuous glucose monitoring in the management of type 1 diabetes in young children aged 4 to <10 years. Diabetes Care. 2012;35:204–210.
  14. McQueen RB, Ellis SL, Campbell JD, et al. Cost–effectiveness of continuous glucose monitoring and intensive insulin therapy for type 1 diabetes. Cost Eff Resour Alloc. 2011;9:13.
  15. New JP, Ajjan R, Pfeiffer AF, et al. Continuous glucose monitoring in people with diabetes: the randomized controlled Glucose Level Awareness in Diabetes Study (GLADIS). Diabet Med. 2015;32:609–617.
  16. O´Connell MA, Donath S, O'Neal DN, et al. Glycaemic impact of patient–led use of sensor–guided pump therapy in type 1 diabetes: a randomised controlled trial. Diabetologia. 2009;52:1250–1257.
  17. Raccah D, Sulmont V, Reznik Y, et al. Incremental value of continuous glucose monitoring when starting pump therapy in patients with poorly controlled type 1 diabetes: The RealTrend study. Diabetes Care. 2009;32:2245–2250.
  18. Radermecker RP, Saint Remy A, Scheen AJ, et al. Continuous glucose monitoring reduces both hypoglycaemia and HbA1c in hypoglycaemia–prone type 1 diabetic patients treated with a portable pump. Diabetes Metab. 2010;36:409–413.
  19. Riveline JP, Schaepelynck P, Chaillous L, et al. Assessment of patient–led or physician–driven continuous glucose monitoring in patients with poorly controlled type 1 diabetes using basal–bolus insulin regimens: a 1–year multicenter study. Diabetes Care. 2012;35:965–971.
  20. Tamborlane WV, Beck RW, Bode BW, et al. Continuous glucose monitoring and intensive treatment of type 1 diabetes. N Engl J Med. 2008;359:1464–1476.
  21. Tildesley HD, Wright AM, Chan JH, et al. A comparison of internet monitoring with continuous glucose monitoring in insulin–requiring type 2 diabetes mellitus. Can J Diabetes. 2013;37:305–308.
  22. Wojciechowski P, Rys P, Lipowska A, et al. Efficacy and safety comparison of continuous glucose monitoring and self–monitoring of blood glucose in type 1 diabetes: systematic review and meta–analysis. Pol Arch Med Wewn. 2011;121:333–343.
  23. Yeh HC, Brown TT, Maruthur N, et al. Comparative effectiveness and safety of methods of insulin delivery and glucose monitoring for diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta–analysis. Ann Intern Med. 2012;157:336–47.