About Opioid-related Data in New York State

Index

Return to top of page

Methodology and Limitations

Types of Estimates

  1. Percentage/age-adjusted percentage:  Percentages are calculated per 100 population (e.g. Percentage of patients receiving more than an average daily dose ≥90 morphine milligram equivalents of opioid analgesics).
    The percentages were age-adjusted to the U.S. 2000 standard population using appropriate age distributions. 1 Age-adjustment is a process that is performed to allow communities with different age structures to be compared.2
  2. Rate/age-adjusted rate:  A rate is a measure of the frequency with which an event occurs in a defined population over a specified period of time. Rates used for the opioid website tracking indicators are per 1,000 or 100,000 population.
    The rates were age-adjusted to the U.S. 2000 standard population using appropriate age distributions. 1 Age-adjustment is a process that is performed to allow communities with different age structures to be compared.2

Unstable Estimates

Multiple years of data were combined to generate more stable estimates when the number of events for an indicator was small (i.e., rare conditions).

An asterisk (*) symbol is used to indicate that a percentage, or rate is unreliable/unstable. This usually occurs when there are less than 10 events in the numerator.

Data Suppression for Confidentiality

Results are not shown (i.e., suppressed) when issues of confidentiality exist. Suppression rules vary depending on the data source and the indicator.

Data Sources Suppression Criteria
PMP Numerator between 1 - 5 cases

PMP:  Prescription Monitoring Program

Return to top of page

Prescription Monitoring Program (PMP) data in New York State by region and county

Prescription Monitoring Program indicator descriptions and data sources
Indicator Definition Numerator/detailed explanation Denominator/detailed explanation Data Source
Opioid analgesics prescription rate per 1,000 population Number and rate of opioid analgesic prescriptions per 1,000 residents
The rates presented are controlled substance prescription rates per population. These numbers are federally-standardized indicators used to measure types of progress toward combating the controlled substance epidemic in certain states. They are not rates of the number of different people who are receiving a controlled substance prescription in a certain population. Rather, they are rates of the number of specific controlled substance prescriptions written and dispensed within the period. For example, if a county has a rate of 25, that means there were 25 prescriptions per 1,000 people in the population. However, it does not necessarily mean that 25 out of 1,000 individuals received a prescription; all 25 controlled substance prescriptions could have been for one individual.
Because dispensed prescription data for controlled substances can be reported or corrected after the date the drug was dispensed, the historic prescription data on this webpage is subject to subsequent updating.
The data exclude buprenorphine prescriptions for the treatment of substance use disorder.
Schedule II, III and IV opioid analgesic prescriptions dispensed to state residents Midyear population for the calendar year under surveillance from US census NYS PMP registry
Crude rate of patients prescribed opioid analgesics from five or more prescribers and dispensed at five or more pharmacies per 100,000 population Multiple provider episodes for prescription opioids (five or more prescribers and five or more pharmacies in a six-month period), crude rate per 100,000 residents.
The data exclude buprenorphine prescriptions for the treatment of substance use disorder.
Number of patients receiving prescriptions for opioid analgesics from five or more prescribers and that are dispensed at five or more pharmacies in a six-month period Midyear population for the calendar year under surveillance from US census NYS PMP registry
Buprenorphine prescribing for substance use disorder (SUD), rate per 1,000 population Buprenorphine for substance use disorder (SUD) prescribing rates per 1,000 residents
The rates presented are controlled substance prescription rates per population. These numbers are federally-standardized indicators used to measure types of progress toward combating the controlled substance epidemic in certain states. They are not rates of the number of different people who are receiving a controlled substance prescription in a certain population. Rather, they are rates of the number of specific controlled substance prescriptions written and dispensed within the period. For example, if a county has a rate of 25, that means there were 25 prescriptions per 1,000 people in the population. However, it does not necessarily mean that 25 out of 1,000 individuals received a prescription; all 25 controlled substance prescriptions could have been for one individual.
Because dispensed prescription data for controlled substances can be reported or corrected after the date the drug was dispensed, the historic prescription data on this webpage is subject to subsequent updating.
Buprenorphine prescriptions dispensed to state residents for substance use disorder (SUD) within the state Midyear population for the calendar year under surveillance from US census NYS PMP registry
Benzodiazepine prescription rate per 1,000 population Number and rate of benzodiazepine prescriptions per 1,000 residents
The rates presented are controlled substance prescription rates per population. These numbers are federally-standardized indicators used to measure types of progress toward combating the controlled substance epidemic in certain states. They are not rates of the number of different people who are receiving a controlled substance prescription in a certain population. Rather, they are rates of the number of specific controlled substance prescriptions written and dispensed within the period. For example, if a county has a rate of 25, that means there were 25 prescriptions per 1,000 people in the population. However, it does not necessarily mean that 25 out of 1,000 individuals received a prescription; all 25 controlled substance prescriptions could have been for one individual.
Because dispensed prescription data for controlled substances can be reported or corrected after the date the drug was dispensed, the historic prescription data on this webpage is subject to subsequent updating.
Benzodiazepine prescriptions dispensed to residents within the state or specific county. Common benzodiazepine prescriptions include alprazolam, clonazepam, diazepam, and lorazepam. Midyear population for the calendar year under surveillance from US census NYS PMP registry

New York State Prescription Monitoring Program - NYSPMP

The New York State Prescription Monitoring Program Registry (PMP) is an online registry that is maintained by New York State Department of Health’s Bureau of Narcotic Enforcement. The registry collects dispensed prescription data for controlled substances in schedules II, III, IV and V that are reported by more than 5,000 separate dispensing pharmacies and practitioners registered with New York State. The data must be submitted to the Bureau of Narcotic Enforcement (BNE) within 24 hours after the prescription is dispensed. BNE closely monitors all submitted prescriptions and their associated information. The integrity of the data is achieved through a variety of system edits, and it is the responsibility of the pharmacies to provide timely and accurate data.

Implications of the New York State PMP

Effective August 27, 2013, NYS prescribers are required to consult the Prescription Monitoring Program Registry prior to writing a prescription for Schedule II, III, and IV controlled substances. The PMP provides practitioners with direct, secure access to view dispensed controlled substance prescription histories for their patients. The PMP is available 24 hours a day/7 days a week via an application on the Health Commerce System (HCS). Patient reports will include all controlled substances that were dispensed in New York State and reported by the pharmacy/dispenser for the past year. This information will allow practitioners to better evaluate their patients' treatment with controlled substances and determine whether there may be abuse or non-medical use. In addition, pharmacists can also access the registry before dispensing the prescriptions for controlled substances.

Data exclusions

For all PMP indicators, several exclusions were applied. Prescriptions for out-of-state patients or without a valid patient’s NY ZIP code were removed from the analysis. Data from veterinarians and prescription drugs administered to animals were not included in the analysis of PMP data. Prescriptions filled for opioids that have supply days greater than 90 were eliminated from the analysis. Also, opioids not typically used in outpatient settings and cold formulations including elixirs, antitussives, decongestants, antihistamines and expectorants were not included in the analysis.

References

  1. Klein RJ, Schoenborn CA. Age adjustment using the 2000 projected U.S. population. Healthy People Statistical Notes, no. 20. Hyattsville, Maryland: National Center for Health Statistics. January 2001. (see: www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/statnt/statnt20.pdf)
  2. About Age Adjusted Rates, 95% Confidence Intervals and Unstable Rates (see: www.health.ny.gov/statistics/cancer/registry/age.htm)