Section I - Demographic Characteristics of Children Reported with Major Malformations

Introduction to Tables

These tables are based on children resident in New York State who were live born in 1995 and reported to the registry with major malformations. Since a new coding system began to be used in 1992, the list of major malformations has been revised (see Appendix 4). Thus, the prevalence in this report are not comparable to reports prior to 1992.

About 77% of children reported with major malformations have only one major malformation (Table 1). The overall occurrences of major malformations are 3.9% of live births. Male children have a higher rate of major malformations than female children (4.6% versus 3.1%, Table 2). This difference is consistent within different racial groups. The rates for major malformations are somewhat higher for black than for white children (4.4% versus 3.8%). The major malformation rate among children with residence at birth in New York State excluding New York City was approximately the same as children with residence at birth in New York City (3.9%). The smaller number of births in the "other" racial category makes these rates difficult to interpret.

Since most children had one major malformation, the race-sex patterns seen for all major malformations are similar to the patterns seen in children with a single major malformation (Table 3). All race-sex groups for children with multiple major malformations showed little variation (Table 4).

Most major malformations were diagnosed within the first three days of life for all races (76.0%,Table 5). The percentage diagnosed within the first three days was slightly higher for white (76.5%) than for black children (74.9%). The proportion of diagnoses made at age six months or later is somewhat greater for black children (5.7%) than for white children (5.2% Table 5).

Section I - Table I
1995 Births - New York State Residents
Number of Major Malformations Per Child
Number of
Malformations
Number of
Children
Percent
All Children 10,484 100.0**
1 8,108 77.3
2 1,447 13.8
3 456 4.3
4 207 2.0
5 100 1.0
6 68 0.6
7 41 0.4
8 20 0.2
9 15 0.1
10 10 0.1
11 5 *
12 3 *
13 1 *
14 2 *
* Less than 0.05%
**Total may not add to 100 due to rounding

Section I - Table 2
1995 Births - New York State Residents
Percent of Live Births With One Or More Major Malformations
Sex by Race and Residence
  Both Sexes Males Females
Race and Residence Infants Births % Infants Births % Infants Births %
New York State  
     All Races+ 10,484 271,042 3.9 6,384 138,583 4.6 4,100 132,457 3.1
     White 7,438 196,558 3.8 4,611 100,784 4.6 2,827 95,774 3.0
     Black 2,463 55,556 4.4 1,429 28,070 5.1 1,034 27,484 3.8
     Other 495 17,118 2.9 295 8,828 3.3 200 8,290 2.4
NYS Excluding NYC  
     All Races+ 5,593 144,879 3.9 3,469 73,984 4.7 2,124 70,893 3.0
     White 4,768 124,688 3.8 2,985 63,700 4.7 1,783 60,988 2.9
     Black 645 14,711 4.4 386 7,452 5.2 259 7,257 3.6
     Other 123 4,418 2.8 70 2,301 3.0 53 2,117 2.5
New York City  
     All Races+ 4,891 126,163 3.9 2,915 64,599 4.5 1,976 61,564 3.2
     White 2,670 71,870 3.7 1,626 37,084 4.4 1,044 34,786 3.0
     Black 1,818 40,845 4.5 1,043 20,618 5.1 775 20,227 3.8
     Other 372 12,700 2.9 225 6,527 3.4 147 6,173 2.4
+Total includes unknowns within each category, thus row and column figures may not sum to totals.

Section I - Table 3
1995 Births - New York State Residents
Percent of Live Births With One Major Malformations
Sex by Race and Residence
  Both Sexes Males Females
Race and Residence Infants Births % Infants Births % Infants Births %
New York State  
     All Races+ 8,109 271,042 3.0 5,007 138,583 3.6 3,102 132,457 2.3
     White 5,738 196,558 2.9 3,622 100,784 3.6 2,116 95,774 2.2
     Black 1,939 55,556 3.5 1,132 28,070 4.0 807 27,484 2.9
     Other 371 17,118 2.2 219 8,828 2.5 152 8,290 1.8
NYS Excluding NYC  
     All Races+ 4,281 144,879 3.0 2,681 73,984 3.6 1,600 70,893 2.3
     White 3,649 124,688 2.9 2,314 63,700 3.6 1,335 60,988 2.2
     Black 497 14,711 3.4 296 7,452 4.0 201 7,257 2.8
     Other 96 4,418 2.2 51 2,301 2.2 45 2,117 2.1
New York City  
     All Races+ 3,828 126,163 3.0 2,326 64,599 3.6 1,502 61,564 2.4
     White 2,089 71,870 2.9 1,308 37,084 3.5 781 34,786 2.2
     Black 1,442 40,845 3.5 836 20,618 4.1 606 20,227 3.0
     Other 275 12,700 2.2 168 6,527 2.6 107 6,173 1.7
+Total includes unknowns within each category, thus row and column figures may not sum to totals.

Section I - Table 4
1995 Births - New York State Residents
Percent of Live Births With Two or More Major Malformations
Sex by Race and Residence
Race and Residence Both Sexes Males Females
Infants Total
Births
% Infants Total
Births
% Infants Total
Births
%
New York State
     All Races+ 2,375 271,042 0.9 1,377 138,583 1.0 998 132,457 0.8
     White 1,700 196,558 0.9 989 100,784 1.0 711 95,774 0.7
     Black 524 55,556 0.9 297 28,070 1.1 227 27,484 0.8
     Other 124 17,118 0.7 76 8,828 0.9 48 8,290 0.6
NYS Excluding NYC
     All Races+ 1,312 144,879 0.9 788 73,984 1.1 524 70,893 0.7
     White 1,119 124,688 0.9 671 63,700 1.1 488 60,988 0.7
     Black 148 14,711 1.0 90 7,452 1.2 58 7,257 0.8
     Other 27 4,418 0.6 19 2,301 0.8 8 2,117 0.4
New York City
     All Races+ 1,063 126,163 0.8 589 64,599 0.9 474 61,564 0.8
     White 581 71,870 0.8 318 37,084 0.9 263 34,786 0.8
     Black 376 40,845 0.90 207 20,618 1.0 169 20,227 0.8
     Other 97 12,700 0.8 57 6,527 0.9 40 6,173 0.6
+Total includes unknowns within each category, thus row and column figures may not sum to totals
Section I - Table 5
1995 Births - New York State Residents
Age at Earliest Diagnosis in Children With Major Malformations
Race and Residence
Age at Diagnosis
and Residence
All Races White Black Other
Number % Number % Number % Number %
New York State
     All Ages+ 10,484 100.0 7,438 100.0 2,463 100.0 495 100.0
     Less than 3 days 7,966 76.0 5,692 76.5 1,844 74.9 361 72.9
     3 to 29 days 1,073 10.2 773 10.4 267 10.8 70 14.1
     30 to 182 days 888 8.5 629 8.5 212 8.6 39 7.9
     6 months to 2 yrs. 557 5.3 384 5.2 140 5.7 25 5.1
NYS Excluding NYC
     All Ages+ 5,593 100.0 4,768 100.0 645 100.0 123 100.0
     Less than 3 days 4,296 76.8 3,666 76.9 486 75.3 97 78.9
     3 to 29 days 504 9.0 429 9.0 63 9.8 11 8.9
     30 to 182 days 493 8.8 415 8.7 64 9.9 9 7.3
     6 months to 2 yrs. 300 5.4 258 5.4 32 5.0 6 4.9
New York City
     All Ages+ 4,891 100.0 2,670 100.0 1,818 100.0 372 100.0
     Less than 3 days 3,670 75.0 2,026 75.9 1,358 74.7 264 71.0
     3 to 29 days 569 11.6 304 11.4 204 11.2 59 15.9
     30 to 182 days 395 8.1 214 8.0 148 8.1 30 8.1
+Total includes unknowns within each category, thus row and column figures may not sum to totals.