What is BASICS?
BASICS is a biopsychosocial model that assists staff in planning care for residents that supports remaining abilities and caring relationships. Each letter of BASICS represents a level in the hierarchy of needs, which is presented in the table below.
|BASICS HIERARCHY MODEL OF RESIDENT NEEDS IN LONG TERM CARE|
Basic needs for food, water, oxygen, safety, rest, human stimulation.
Resident physically cared for and safe.
|Activities of Daily Living
Personal needs that support life style (eating, mobility, dressing, toileting, personal hygiene).
Environment provides supplies and assistance to foster self-performance.
Need for unique personal identity, privacy, resident's place in society).
Environment provides for privacy affiliation with groups, culture, family customs, education, resident selection of associations with individuals and groups.
Need for connection with others (love and belonging).
Environment fosters social role expression, supports interpersonal, and social abilities, promotes social confidence and an atmosphere of caring and being cared about.
Need for personal expression, problem solving opportunities, and meaningful activity. Need for the activity in the resident's life that brings joy (face lights up-"the spark of life" is there, if even for a fleeting moment).
Environment supports independent activity, humor, creativity, and encourages use of talents and skills. Environment identifies and fosters the activity that brings that "spark of life" to the resident. It also, supports the resident to continue to problem-solve and make decisions in his/her everyday life.
Need for expression of: beliefs, hopes, dreams, values and autonomy (ability to control important aspects of life). Sense of peace in the universe according to the individual resident's belief of the meaning of life.
Environment encourages hopefulness and self-fulfillment: ("Being all you can be") Environment respects and encourages expression of the spiritual dimension of the resident and supports spiritual ministry from outside sources as requested by the resident or family.
|Adapted for EDGE from Vickers, R. (1977). Originally modified with permission in J.L. Ronch, (July/August 1987). Specialized Alzheimer's unit in nursing homes: Pros and Cons. American Journal of Alzheimer's Care and Related Disorders & Research, 2, 10-19.|
There are positive and negative outcomes associated with attaining, or failing to achieve, need satisfaction under each level. All levels of BASICS, that is, all levels of human need, should be addressed throughout the entire life of the resident with dementia, even if (s)he is in the "final" phase and appears barely responsive to the environment.