This intervention was developed, and is available on EDGE with permission, by Linda Gerdner.
Cohen-Mansfield, J., Marx, M.S. & Rosenthal, A.S. (1989). A description of agitation in a nursing home. Journal of Gerontology. 44, M77-M84.
(The use of the CMAI in this intervention does not imply the endorsement of EDGE by Dr. Cohen-Mansfield)
Gerdner, L. A., & Swanson, E. A. (1993). Effects of individualized music on elderly patients who are confused and agitated. Archives of Psychiatric Nursing, 7(5), 282-291.
Gerdner, L. A. (1997). An individualized music intervention for agitation. Journal of the American Psychiatric Nurses Association, 3(6),177-184.
Theory Testing Research
Gerdner, L. A. (2000). Effects of individualized vs. classical "relaxation" music on the frequency of agitation in elderly persons with Alzheimer's disease and related disorders. International Psychogeriatrics, 12(1), 49-65.
Evidence-Based Protocol (Abridged Version)
Gerdner, L. A. (2001). Evidence-based protocol: Individualized music intervention. In M. Titler (Series Ed.) Series on Evidence-Based Practice for Older Adults. Iowa City, Iowa: The University of Iowa College of Nursing Gerontological Nursing Interventions Research Center, Research Dissemination Core.
Gerdner, L. A. (2001). Consumer version of evidence-based protocol: Individualized music. In M. Titler (Series Ed.) Series on Evidence-Based Practice for Older Adults. Iowa City, Iowa: The University of Iowa College of Nursing Gerontological Nursing Interventions Research Center, Research Dissemination Core.
Gerdner, L. A. (1999). Individualized music intervention protocol. Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 25(10), 10-16.
Gerdner, L. A. (2005). Use of individualized music by trained staff and family: Translating research into practice. Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 31 (6), 22-30.
Additional Supporting Research
Burack, O.R., Jefferson, P., & Libow, L. S. (2002). Individualized music: A route to improving the quality of life for long-term care residents. Activities, Adaptation, & Aging, 27(1), 63-76.
Crystal, H., Grober, E., & Mauser, D. (1989). Preservation of musical memory in Alzheimer's disease. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry, 52, 1415-1416.
Janelli, L. M., Kanski, G. W., & Yow-Wu. B. W. (2002). Individualized music - A different approach to the restraint issue. Rehabilitation Nursing, 27 (6). 221-226.
Petsche, H., Lindner, K., Rappelsberger, P., & Gruber, G. (1988). The EEG: An adequate method to concretize brain processes elicited by music. Music Perceptions, 6(2), 133-159.
Ragneskog, H. (2001). Music and other strategies in the care of agitated individuals with dementia. Doctoral thesis. Göteborg University, Institute of Clinical Neruroscience, Psychiatry Section: Mölndal, Sweden.
Ragneskog, H., Asplund, K., Kihlgren, M. & Norberg, A. (2000). Individualized music played for agitated patients with dementia: Analysis of video-recorded sessions. International Journal of Nursing Practice, 7, 146-155.
Swartz, K. P., Hantz, E., C., Crummer, G. C., Walton, J. P., & Frisina, R. D., (1989). Does the melody linger on? Music cognition in Alzheimer's disease. Seminars in Neurology, 9(2), 152-157.
Algase, D. L., Beck, C., Kolanowski, A., Whall, A., Berent, S., Richards, K., & Bettie, E. (1996). Need-driven dementia-compromised behavior: An alternative view of disruptive behavior. American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, 11(6), 10-19.
Cohen-Mansfield, J. (1986). Agitated behaviors in the elderly II. Preliminary results in the cognitively deteriorated. Journal of American Geriatrics Society, 34(10),722-727.
Cohen-Mansfield, J. & Billig, N. (1986). Agitated behaviors in the elder I. A conceptual review. Journal of American Geriatrics Society, 34, 711-721.
Cohen-Mansfield, J., Culpepper, W. J., & Werner, P. (1995). The relationship between cognitive function and agitation in senior day care participants. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 10, 585-595.
Cohen-Mansfield, J. & Marx, M. S. (1990). The relationship between sleep disturbances and agitation in a nursing home. Journal of Aging and Health, 2(10, 42-57.
Deutsch, L. H., & Rovner, B. W. (1991). Agiation and other noncognitive abnormalities in Alzheimer's disease. The Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 14(2), 341-351.
Gerdner, L. A. (1992). The effects of individualized music on elderly patients who are confused and agitated. Master's thesis, University of Iowa, Iowa City.
Hall, G. R., & Buckwalter, K. C. (1987). Progressively lowered stress threshold: A conceptual model forcare of adults with Alzheimer's disease. Archives of Psychiatric Nursing, 1(6), 399-406.
Hall, G. R., Gerdner, L., Zwyart-Stauffacher, M., & Buckwalter, K. C. (1995). Principles of non-pharmacological management: Caring for people with Alzheimer's disease using a conceptual model. Psychiatric Annals, 25(7), 432-440.
Legér, J., Moulias, R., Robert, P., Vellas, B., Chapuy, P., Monfort, J. C., Khosnood, B., Bouee, S., Reb, N., & Gerard, D. (2002). Agitation and aggressiveness among the elderly population living in nursing or retirement homes in France. International Psychogeriatrics, 14(4), 405-416.
Marx, M. S., Cohen-Mansfield, J., & Werner, P. (1990). Agitation and falls in institutionalized elderly persons. The Journal of Applied Gerontology, 9(1), 106-117.
Ragneskog, H., Gerdner, L. A., Josefsson, K., & Kihlgren, M. (1998). Probable reasons for expressed agitation in persons with dementia. Clinical Nursing Research, 7(2), 189-206.
Ragneskog, H., Kihlgren, M., Karlsson, L., & Norberg, A. (1993). Nursing home staff opinions of work with demented patients and effects of training in integrated-promoting care. Vard I Norden Nursing Science & Research in the Nordic Countries, 13(1), 5-10.
Reisberg, B., Ferris, S. H., deLeon, M. J., & Crook, T. (1982). The global deterioration scale for assessment of primary degenerative dementia. American Journal of Psychiatry, 139(9), 1136-1139.