Overweight and obesity are significant risk factors for many chronic diseases and conditions, including: heart disease, hypertension (high blood pressure), stroke, diabetes, endometrial, breast and colon cancers, arthritis, sleep apnea, respiratory problems, vision and reproductive problems.
Overweight and obesity and their associated diseases and conditions have a significant impact on the healthcare system in the U.S. and New York State. CDC's Economic Consequences.
According to NYS Comptroller DiNapoli, New York ranks second among states in adult obesity-related medical expenditures, with total spending in New York increasing to an $7.6 billion (from $6.1 billion), 81% of which is paid by Medicaid and Medicare. Preventing and Reducing Childhood Obesity in New York.
Based on self-reported height and weight, 60% of adults in New York State are either overweight or obese. Overweight and obesity are more prevalent among African Americans (66%) than among Caucasians (61%). Overweight and Obesity in New York State Adults 2008.
Between 2003 and 2007, the prevalence of obesity in New York City increased from 20% to 22%. Obesity was highest and increased the most among people living in low-income neighborhoods. Differences in obesity existed between neighborhoods with different levels of access to physical activity opportunities and food amenities. Reference: Black JL, Macinko J. The changing distribution of and determinants of obesity in neighborhoods of New York City, 2003-2007. Am J Epidemiol.Advance Acces published on February 19, 2010. doi:10.1093/aje/kwp458
A 2003 survey of kindergarten through fifth grade students in New York City revealed that 24% were obese, compared to 19% of second through fifth grade students in 1990. References: Melnik TA, Rhoades SJ, Wales KR, Cowell C, Wolfe WS. Overweight school children in New York City: prevalence estimates and characteristics. Int.J Obes.Relat Metab Disord. 1998;22(1):7-13. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1448480/ Thorpe LE, List DG, Marx T, May L, Helgerson SD, Frieden TR. Childhood obesity in New York City elementary school students. Am.J Public Health. 2004;94(9):1496-1500.
Based on the 2004 cycle of the Oral Health, Physical Activity and Nutrition Survey of third graders in upstate New York, 21% were obese. In a 1987 survey, 13% of second and fifth graders were obese. References: Wolfe WS, Campbell CC, Frongillo EA, Jr., Haas JD, Melnik TA. Overweight schoolchildren in New York State: prevalence and characteristics (PDF, 1.6MB, 7pg.). Am.J Public Health. 1994;84(5):807-813.
Obesity is more prevalent among African Americans (44%) than among Mexican Americans (39%) and Non-Hispanic Whites (33%). Reference: Flegal, KM, Carroll, MD, Ogden CL, et al. Prevalence and Trends in Obesity Among US Adults (PDF, 275KB, 8pg.), 1999-2008 JAMA. 2010;303(3):235-241
Among US children enrolled in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) in 2008, American Indian children and Hispanic children had the highest prevalence of obesity (20% and 18%, respectively), followed by Whites (13%) and Blacks (12%). Reference: CDC Pediatric Nutrition Surveillance Survey, 2008.